Event Summary
     National Weather Service, Raleigh NC

August 10, 2007 Severe Weather Event
Updated 2007/08/30

Event Headlines -
...A severe thunderstorm over Wayne County produced a macroburst in the city of Goldsboro...
...The Finch's Station RAWS site, just a few miles northwest of Goldsboro recorded a 85 MPH wind gust...
...Several homes, cars, and business structures in the path of the storm were damaged...
...Wayne County emergency management reported a total of four minor injuries and no fatalities...
...The Wayne County storm also generated extreme amounts of lightning with nearly 300 cloud-to-ground strikes in a 15-minute period (one strike every 3 seconds)...

Event Overview -
In the wake of an intense heat wave that shattered many high temperature records throughout the week, a surface trough moving southeast across the state sparked several thunderstorms, eight of which were severe. Throughout the week, a strong mid-level ridge over the central and southeast U.S. caused temperatures to soar into the low 100's. The warm air aloft helped to suppress and convective activity for the first half of the week. However, as the mid-level cap slowly weakened and low-level moisture began to increase along the surface trough, thunderstorm coverage became greater, tapping into the Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) of the environment.

Early during the afternoon of Friday, August 9, dry air aloft moving into central North Carolina was visible in water vapor imagery, and forecasters were able to key in on the feature as a developing potential for wet microbursts. The 00 UTC RAOB from Greensboro, NC (GSO) revealed a deep, dry mixed layer below 800 mb, beneath a fairly moist layer from 800 mb up to 600 mb, with extremely dry air above. This was most likely representative of the environment during the afternoon. The freezing level on this day was well over 15,000 feet, so the main threat, given the possibility of dry air intrusion into convective up drafts, with a dry adiabatic boundary layer, was the potential for strong winds. Just after noon, scattered showers and thunderstorms began to develop along an axis of strong moisture convergence located over the northeast Piedmont. The eastern third of North Carolina was extremely unstable at this time, with mixed layer CAPE (MLCAPE) values exceeding 3000 J/kg. The Raleigh National Weather Service issued the first severe thunderstorm warning of the afternoon at 331 PM EDT for Franklin County and Nash Counties (see a list of all warnings). Less intense convection formed along the trough axis that extended through the center of the state. The cluster of storms over southwest Virginia created a well defined outflow boundary that raced southwestward during the next few hours, causing many of the storms moving to the southeast to intensify, including the Wayne County storm at around 6 PM EDT. The Wayne County storm moved directly over the city of Goldsboro around 620 PM EDT. As the storm moved over the city, the storm collapsed, bringing over 85 mph winds to the surface along U.S. 70, along the north side of town. A damage survey on Saturday, August 11 revealed a two mile wide swath of damage extending for about six miles. The cause of the severe winds was deemed a macroburst... or a large-scale downburst.

Severe Weather Reports -
Text of severe weather reports across central North Carolina

Mesoscale Data

Analyzed mean sea level pressure (black) and surface wind barbs from SPC at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007 (500 PM EDT).
A surface trough is visible from Delaware south through the Chesapeake Bay and south into eastern North Carolina. West of the surface trough dew points were in the mid to upper 60s while dew points were in the mid to upper 70s east of the trough across the coastal plain.

SPC Analysis at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007.

300 MB wind barbs (black), 300 MB isotachs (blue) and analyzed 300 MB divergence (purple) from SPC at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007 (500 PM EDT).
The primary jet axis is located well to the north across the Great Lakes region and New England with an area of enhanced winds located over New York and off the New York/New Jersey coast. This resulted in an axis of enhanced upper divergence (shown in purple) extending from northeast to southwest across the Mid Atlantic.

SPC Analysis at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007.

850 MB heights, temperatures (red), dew points (green), and wind barbs (black) from SPC at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007 (500 PM EDT).
A trough at 850 MB extended from the close circulation center off the New Jersey coast southwest into central Virginia and northwestern North Carolina. An axis of greater moisture extends from southeast Virginia into eastern North Carolina. Very warm 850 MB temperatures of 24 degrees C is shown across northern South Carolina and southern North Carolina with cooler temperatures located across northeast North Carolina and behind the 850 MB trough.

SPC Analysis at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007.

Analyzed low level lapse rates in the 0-3 km layer (blue, green, orange, and red) from SPC at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007 (500 PM EDT).
A lapse rate is the rate of temperature change with height and the image below is for the layer from the surface to around 9,000 feet. Note the surface based, low level lapse rates shown below exceed 8 deg C/km across include much of central North Carolina and the southern Coastal Plain with values exceeding 9 deg C/km near the South Carolina border indicating absolute instability. These extreme values are connected to the very hot temperatures around or just above 100 degrees.

SPC Analysis at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007.

Analyzed surface based CAPE (red) and surface based CIN (shaded in blue) from SPC at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007 (500 PM EDT).
CAPE values exceeding 3000 J/kg are shown across the southern and central Coastal Plain.

SPC Analysis at 21Z on Friday, August 10, 2007.

NWS Composite Reflectivity Imagery from 1332Z on Thursday, November 16, 2006 (732 AM EST).
The composite reflectivity imagery is from the approximate time in which the analysis imagery above is valid.

Composite Reflectivity Imagery from 1332Z on Thursday, November 16, 2006.


A Java Loop of visible satellite imagery from 1401Z (801 AM EDT) through 2340Z (740 PM EDT) Friday, August 10, 2007 is available here. Note - this loop includes 39 frames.

The visible satellite image below is from 2225Z (625 PM EDT) which is at the approximate time damaging winds were blowing through Goldsboro. The Goldsboro storm is located on the southwestern edge of the milky clouds that stretch across much of eastern and northeastern North Carolina.

Visible satellite imagery

Triple Point Convective Initiation

The theory of triple point convective initiation is a well established explanation for explosive convection over the Central Plains. The clash of humid air originating over the Gulf of Mexico and very dry air moving off the elevated plateau in the lee of the Rockies forms the dryline (Schaefer 1974), where surface dew points can vary up to 15 degrees Celsius over just a few kilometers. Such a density discontinuity can serve as a region of strong low-level convergence and be a catalyst for convective activity. Several studies from the early 1980's found that the interaction of the dryline and baroclinic zones helped to enhance convective initiation. The role of the barloclinic zone is to strengthen the surface convergence, and even extend the depth of the convergence to a level that assists air parcels in reaching their level of free convection. While the environment of central North Carolina during the summer does not support dew point gradients as extreme as those across the Central Plains dryline, the concept of the triple point may be applicable to a slightly more homogeneous environment that still possesses the features of three distinct air masses.

During the day on August 10, a dew point spread of 10-15 degrees Fahrenheit developed across the Piedmont, with dew points in the low to mid 60's over the foothills of Virginia and the mid 70's over much of the coastal plain (and even a few readings of 80 degrees along the coast). A convergence zone in the form of a surface trough set up across the center of North Carolina. Convection developed along this boundary at 20Z and moved southeast across the state at 21Z. Thunderstorms over the southwest Virginia produced a cool outflow boundary oriented from northwest to southeast that propagated toward the southwest. Temperatures behind the outflow boundary were in the mid 80's, over 10 degrees cooler than the air mass outside of the outflow. This created a scenario with a relatively drier air mass behind the main trough, warmer and more unstable air ahead of the main trough, and strong convergence along the main trough. The outflow boundary served as a baroclinic zone to aid in lifting the already converging air. The full effect of the outflow boundary on the enhancement of updrafts can be seen in a loop of base reflectivity. As the outflow boundary propagates along the main trough (at nearly a 90 degree angle), updrafts are periodically enhanced (higher reflectivity values) as the outflow moves beneath the base of each storm. The convective initiation reached its peak as the outflow boundary moved across the Wayne County, with Vertically Integrated Liquid Water values of 65+ and Enhanced Echo Tops of well over 55,000 feet. The surface convergence with this boundary interaction was strong enough to induce a mesoscale low pressure center over the effected counties

The Goldsboro Severe Thunderstorm

A Closer Review of the Storm -

The severe thunderstorm that moved across Wayne County and the city of Goldsboro was at least in part, a result of convection that initially developed over southeastern Virginia and far northeastern North Carolina earlier in the afternoon. Forecasters knew that there was a high likelihood of thunderstorms during the afternoon and evening. The Storm Prediction Center recognized the threat early in the day with eastern North Carolina and eastern Virginia located in the "Slight Risk" area on the Day 1 Severe Weather Outlook. As expected, conditions were favorable for convection with much of eastern North Carolina in an extremely unstable air mass with mixed layer CAPE (MLCAPE) values exceeding 3000 J/kg. A surface trough oriented from northeast to southwest was located just east of the Piedmont fall line. This boundary provided a focus for surface moisture convergence along with a western boundary for storms to intensify along. In addition, a series of impulses in the mid and upper levels of the atmosphere over Virginia provided a trigger for the storms to develop. Because of the growing threat, the Storm Prediction Center initially issued a Mesoscale Discussion at 115 PM and then issued a Severe Thunderstorm Watch for much of eastern North Carolina and southeast Virginia from 145 PM EDT to 900 PM EDT.

Base reflectivty loop - click to enlarge and control The intense thunderstorms that developed across northeastern North Carolina created several outflow boundaries that raced southwestward between 200 and 400 PM. These outflow boundaries were enhanced by severe thunderstorms that developed over Franklin County before 400 PM and Edgecombe County between 400 and 500 PM. These large outflow boundaries moved southwest and they often intensified other storms, especially the thunderstorms that were in a very unstable air mass whose thunderstorms intersected the outflow boundaries at favorable angles. The animation to the right (click here for a larger view in a new window), clearly shows the numerous boundaries that moved across the area.

At 500 PM the Storm Prediction Center issued a Mesoscale Discussion that highlighted the growing threat for the central coastal plain, in particular Wayne, Duplin, Lenoir, and Greene Counties. These locations were just east of the surface trough and a weak low center. In addition, the air mass in this region was very unstable and significant pressure falls which typically result in the backing of the surface winds and enhanced convergence. In this environment, the intersection of the outflow boundaries with one another or with the surface trough/low center would lead to enhanced convection and the potential for damaging wind gusts.

4 panel loop - click to enalrge and control In the animation shown to the right (click here for a larger view in a new window), the 0.5 deg Base Reflectivity product is shown in the upper left, the Grid based VIL product is shown in the upper right, the Composite Reflectivity is shown in the lower left, and the Echo Top product is shown in the lower right. The loop runs from 2139Z through 2229Z.

An outflow boundary from an intense thunderstorm across northern Wayne County that was moving southwestward, begins to interact with a cell developing in southeastern Johnston County at 2144Z. Forecasters anticipating the interaction of this outflow boundary and the developing convection issued a Severe Thunderstorm Warning at 2145Z (545 PM) for eastern Johnston and Southern Wayne Counties. At 2200Z, the southwestward moving boundary was now enhancing the developing storm as seen in the developing elevated reflectivity values.

The thunderstorm updraft over western Wayne County rapidly intensifies between 2204Z and 2213Z. The storm's explosive intensification appeared to peak between the 2213Z and 2217Z volume scans. The 12 degree Base Reflectivity product at 2213Z showed an elevated reflectivity core of 67 dBZ up to 37,000 feet with the corresponding cross section showing a large area of greater than 60 dBZ aloft. By 2217Z, the 15 degree Base Reflectivity product showed an elevated core of 61 dBZ exceeding 47,000 feet with the corresponding cross section showing the area of 60 dBZ extending just a little higher but also reaching a little lower to around 15,000 feet.

Downbursts, defined as an area of strong winds produced by a thunderstorm downdraft, often times result from the collapse of a large precipitation core from aloft, as described above. There exists a spectrum of different types of downbursts. Downbursts are classified by the environment in which the parent thunderstorm develops, and the resultant physical processes which provide the forcing for the downdraft acceleration. On one end of the spectrum lie dry microbursts - Those that are characterized by high-based, weak updrafts and associated precipitation cores. Dry microbursts derive their energy from evaporation and sublimation of raindrops and snowflakes beneath the thunderstorm, respectively, which latently cool and accelerate the air within the downdraft earthward. On the other end of the spectrum, however, are wet microbursts, which derive their energy from the downward force created by the weight of excessive water content, known as precipitation loading. In addition, the entrainment of dry mid level air and the melting of hail as it falls below the freezing level both latently cool and accelerate the downdraft air toward the earth. The environment in which the thunderstorms that developed over central North Carolina on the 10th could be classified as a hybrid microburst one, skewed toward the wet end given the size and composition of the precipitation cores that developed within the strong updrafts. The massive precipitation core that developed with the Wayne County storm undoubtedly imparted an incredible downward force as it descended. The collapse of this elevated reflectivity core produced one such downburst. The downburst is visible when comparing the radar cross section at 2217Z and 2221Z. The 0.5 degree Base Reflectivity and Storm Relative Velocity imagery at 2221Z shows the downburst with an arc of enhanced reflectivity, along with an area of enhanced outbound velocities (shown in red) up to 45 kts, which can be seen extending across Goldsboro.

At 2214Z (614 PM) an 85 MPH wind gust was reported at the Finch's Station RAWS observing site, just a few miles northwest of Goldsboro. The core of the thunderstorm collapsed as it moved directly over the city of Goldsboro with numerous reports of damage between 620 PM and 635 PM.

A damage survey conducted the following morning found no indications of a tornado touchdown. The broad damage swath and other indicators found by the survey team allowed them to come to this conclusion with some confidence. It should be noted that as the storm moved across Goldsboro there was some rotation noted in the Storm Relative Velocity (SRM) imagery. The 2225Z 4 Panel SRM image shows the rotation signature near the intersection of U.S. 13 and U.S. 70 The rotation appears to be strongest in the 3.1 and 6.4 elevation angles. A 4 panel loop of the Storm Relative Velocity imagery from 2200Z through 2242Z shows that the circulation has some limited temporal continuity at 6.4 degrees as it first appears at 2217Z and is most impressive at 2225Z. The 4 panel image at 2225Z also shows that the circulation appears to extend down to the 1.3 degree elevation angle but not the 0.5 degree angle. It is likely not coincidence that as the outflow from this storm rapidly moved away, the circulation weakens.

The LCL height has been used to determine the threat of tornadoes and significant tornadoes. The LCL height is the height at which a parcel becomes saturated when lifted dry adiabatically. The importance of LCL height is thought to relate to sub-cloud evaporation and the potential for outflow dominance. Low LCL heights imply less evaporational cooling from precipitation and less potential for a strong outflow that would likely inhibit low-level mesocyclone development. Thunderstorms that produce tornadoes generally have a lower LCL height with LCL heights less than 1,000 meters typically favorable for tornado development. The SPC mesoanalysis page at 21Z showed LCL heights that were around 1,500 meters which would suggest a reduced tornado threat across the central Coastal Plain.

Cross Section of the Goldsboro Storm -

Radar reflectivity cross section of a severe thunderstorm as it moved across Wayne County and the City Of Goldsboro on August 10, 2007. The reflectivity cross section is from the western (left) end of the white line in the inserted image in the upper left to the eastern (right) end.

A Java Loop of radar reflectivity cross section from 2156Z (556 PM EDT) through 2229Z (629 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007 is available here. Note - this loop includes 15 frames.

Damage Survey Report -

Starting at 614 PM on August 10th, severe winds from a large-scale (diameter of 4 km or greater, with damaging winds persisting for 2 to 5 minutes) downburst, otherwise known as a macroburst, created widespread damage in Goldsboro and the surrounding area.

The macroburst began near the Finch’s Station site on Claridge Nursery Road just northwest of downtown Goldsboro where an 85 MPH wind gust was recorded at 614 PM by a RAWS mesonet station. A severe thunderstorm warning was issued for Wayne County at 545 pm highlighting damaging winds in Goldsboro. The warning was effective until 630 PM EDT. Emergency calls started coming into the 911 center around 620 PM EDT reporting damage throughout the city. The National Weather Service contacted the 911 center at least twice alerting them to the damaging storm developing west of Goldsboro. The severe thunderstorm warning was reissued at 626 PM EDT extending the warning until 715 pm for Wayne County.

Straight line winds raced east through the north side of Goldsboro with peak wind speeds estimated between 85 and 90 MPH based on the damage survey. The overall macroburst was very large reaching a width of about two and a half miles and extending downwind from the point of origin for about 6 miles. Damaging winds extended from Claridge Nursery road just northwest of downtown Goldsboro through the city ending at Highway 13. Tree damage was extensive all along U.S. 70, Business 70, Royal Avenue and Ashe Street. About a dozen homes in the area experienced damage from falling trees. Numerous roads were blocked by trees and power lines especially from Wayne Memorial Drive east to Highway 13.

The worst damage occurred to the Days Inn on Highway 70. A straight line wind of about 85 to 90 MPH caused the roof of the hotel to vault or become airborne and flip over. The wind was trapped under the eave of the hotel and exerted an upward force on the roof resulting in uplift failure. The hotel roof was constructed of wood joists and lacked any wind straps to anchor the roof based on initial inspection. The hotel was built to code at the time of construction according to the local building inspector. However, new construction requires additional roof anchoring. This partially explains the lack of significant damage to surrounding newer buildings. The failure of the roof structure was due largely in part to the combination of uplift forcing and toe nail type construction in the trusses and joists. The roof became airborne landing in the parking lot and damaging about a dozen vehicles. One person in the parking lot narrowly escaped serious injury running from their car into the hotel mere seconds before the roof crushed the vehicle. At least a dozen vehicles sustained damage from flying debris in the Days Inn parking lot.

Wayne County emergency management reported a total of four minor injuries and no fatalities.

Special thanks goes to Wayne County Emergency Management, North Carolina Emergency Management and the Wayne County building inspector for assisting with the disaster survey.

Map of Damage and Wind Gusts across the Goldsboro Area -

Goldsboro damage map

Lightning and the Goldsboro Severe Thunderstorm

In addition to the tree and structural damage produced by the Wayne County macroburst, the storm also generated extreme amounts of lightning. Here is a snapshot of the radar reflectivity data along with a plot of 15-minute cloud-to-ground strikes (yellow marks), showing 300 strikes in just 15 minutes with this storm - that's one strike every 3 seconds.

2238z radar image and 15 minutes cloud-to-ground lightning strikes

Lightning is produced when there is a buildup of electrical charges within a cloud. In a typical thunderstorm structure, as the updraft increases, positive charges are vaulted into the upper portion of the storm, negative charges pool in the mid levels of the storm, and another pool of positive charges collects near the cloud base. Negative charges are sent down the storm in what is called a stepped leader, which then draws a stream of positive charge upward. As these two charges come together, the electric current forms.

Within a storm, two primary ingredients are critical for lightning formation: (1) the presence of graupel, or small balls of water-coated snow (collisional charging between graupel pellets and lighter ice crystals facilitates lightning production) in what is called the "mixed phase" region of the storm, around -10 to -40 degrees Celsius; and (2) strong instability in this same region of the storm, to facilitate strong updraft velocities and rapid charge separation within the storm. While we cannot measure precisely the presence of graupel inside the storm and the velocity of the storm's updraft, several near-storm parameters indicated a favorable environment for extreme amounts of lightning.

One such parameter that forecasters monitor to anticipate extreme amounts of lightning is the CAPE, or the potential instability, within the -10 to -30 degree Celsius layer (within the "mixed phase" region of the storm), noted in the image below. In local studies of extreme lightning events, values over 200 J/kg have preceded high-frequency lightning strike events. In this case, the layer CAPE aloft approached 400 J/kg over Wayne County.

20z CAPE -10 to -30

Another parameter that helps forecasters measure the potential for vigorous updrafts favorable for lightning is the normalized CAPE, or N-CAPE, which is the CAPE measured from the LCL (lifted condensation level) to the EL (equilibrium level), and gives a measure of the "shape" of the CAPE. A wide or "fat" CAPE will equate to high N-CAPE and indicates the potential for strong updrafts, whereas a narrow or "skinny" CAPE will have a low N-CAPE and indicates weak updrafts. N-CAPE values above 0.1, and especially those above 0.2, indicate a "fat" CAPE and better chance for very strong updrafts. N-CAPE values prior to this storm were near 0.2 (see below).

20z normalized CAPE

Finally, forecasters also consult experimental output from a specialized model algorithm run by the Storm Prediction Center. This output shows the probability of 100 or more lightning strikes. Probabilities greater than 30-40 percent have typically been correlated with high-frequency lightning events, although local studies on such events are still underway. The image below shows the 100-strike probability valid for the 24 hour period from 12z (8 am EDT) 8/10/07 to 12z 8/11/07. Over Wayne County and points east, probabilities were over 80 percent.

of 100 or more strikes

Regional Radar Loop

A Java Loop of regional reflectivity imagery from 1658Z (1258 PM EDT) through 0158Z (958 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007 is available here. Note - this loop includes 55 frames.

The regional reflectivity image below is from 2218Z (618 PM EST) on Friday, August 10, 2007. This is just a few minutes after an 85 MPH wind gust was observed at the Finch's Station RAWS reporting site which is located just northwest of Goldsboro near the intersection of U.S. 70 and N.C. 581. Note the repetitive convective development on the western flank of the convective complex that was moving southwest across the coastal plain.

regional reflectivity image

KRAX Radar Loops

Overview of the entire event with images from every 15 minutes between 1702Z (102 PM EDT) through 2353Z (753 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007.
Java Loop of KRAX reflectivity imagery from 1702Z (102 PM EDT) through 2353Z (753 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007.
Note - this loop includes 29 frames

Overview of the entire event with images from every volume scan between 1702Z (102 PM EDT) through 2353Z (753 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007.
Java Loop of KRAX reflectivity imagery from 1702Z (102 PM EDT) through 2353Z (753 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007.
Note - this loop includes 83 frames

The KRAX reflectivity image below is from 2242Z (642 PM EDT) on Friday, August 10, 2007.

Archived Text Data from the Severe Weather Event

Select the desired product along with the date and click "Get Archive Data."
Date and time should be selected based on issuance time in GMT (Greenwich Mean Time which equals EDT time + 4 hours).

Product ID information for the most frequently used products...

RDUAFDRAH - Area Forecast Discussion
RDUZFPRAH - Zone Forecast Products
RDUAFMRAH - Area Forecast Matrices
RDUPFMRAH - Point Forecast Matrices
RDUHWORAH - Hazardous Weather Outlook
RDUNOWRAH - Short Term Forecast
RDUSPSRAH - Special Weather Statement
RDULSRRAH - Local Storm Reports (reports of severe weather)
RDUSVRRAH - Severe Thunderstorm Warning
RDUSVSRAH - Severe Weather Statement
RDUTORRAH - Tornado Warning


Selected Photographs of the Severe Weather Event

Photos courtesy of Jeff Orrock.
(click on the image to enlarge.)

Wind damage to a Days Inn Hotel in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Wind damage to a Days Inn Hotel in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Wind damage to a Days Inn Hotel in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge

Wind damage to a Days Inn Hotel in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Wind damage to a Days Inn Hotel in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Trees blown down and blocking roads in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge

Trees blown down in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Trees blown down in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Trees blown down in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge

Powerlines down in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Trees blown down and blocking roads in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Trees blown down and blocking roads in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge

Several trees snapped in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge           Trees blown down in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge                 Wind damage to a large tree in Goldsboro - Click to enlarge

Final Thoughts

  • Forecasters monitored and anticipated boundary interactions throughout the event. Several Severe Thunderstorm Warnings were issued with a significant lead time because of this strategy.

  • Forecasters performed hand analysis and consulted the SPC Mesoscale Analysis web page which allowed them to identify critical air mass boundaries and the locations most apt to support significant convection. These hand analysis are very important and they should be prioriitzed by the storm coordinator.

  • Forecasters called the Wayne County Emergency Management group numerous times before, during, and after the event providing direct support to their efforts. This allowed the emergency responders to move those affected by the damaged hotel to a place of safety when a second storm moved through.

  • Case study team -
    Barrett Smith
    Michael Strickler
    Gail Hartfield
    Phil Badgett
    Jeff Orrock
    Jonathan Blaes

    For questions regarding the web site, please contact Jonathan Blaes.

  • NWS Disclaimer.