The Danish Standards for the evaluation of market steers are listed below. Although it is recommended that Cloverbuds (ages 5 - 8) not have beef projects, these standards have been established for the recognition of young people in the 4-H Market Steer Project area. These standards may be used with all 4-H age groups. In this system of determining the level of achievement, the animal should be evaluated against the standard and not the other animals in the particular class.
This system of evaluating the market steer will utilize the USDA quality and yield grade systems as well as visual appraisal for muscling and conformation. The formula for the USDA yield grade system is: Yield Grade = 2.50 + (2.50 x adjusted fat thickness, inches) + (0.20 x percent kidney, pelvic and heart fat) + (0.0038 x hot carcass weight, pounds) - (0.32 x ribeye area, square inches)
Steers grading USDA Choice or better in quality grade; having superior conformation; balance, style and superior quality; and cutability. Yield grade 3 or better.
Steers grading USDA Choice or better in quality grade; having average conformation; balance, style and superior quality; and cutability. Yield grade 3 or better.
Steers grading USDA high Select with superior conformation. Yield grades 1 and 2.
Steers grading USDA low Select or lower in quality grade. Steers grading USDA Choice or Prime with poor conformation that are yield grade 4 or 5.
North Carolina 4-H Livestock Overall Objectives
The North Carolina 4-H and Junior Livestock Program provides many project area that address the various segments of the livestock industry. Emphasis for all of the projects is on the development of the young person. The youth are the focus of the projects, while the animals and projects are utilized as the vehicle for the progress in the development of youth. Available educational programs cover subject matter materials from production practices to the meat product supplied for the consumer's plate. For further information about programs and services provided by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service:
Some additional materials available from North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service:
|ANS 95-002B||Beef Showmanship|
|ANS 96-006B||Evaluating and Recognizing Youth Using the Danish System|
|ANS 96-008B||Cloverbud (5-6 Years of Age) Beef Exhibitors Project Guide|
|ANS 96-009B||Cloverbud (7-8 Years of Age) Beef Exhibitors Project Guide|
|10M894comm||Pennsylvania 4-H Livestock Judging Manual|
|4-H R-5-14||4-H Market Steer Performance Record|
|4-H M-5-16||North Carolina 4-H Market Steer Manual|
|4-H R-5-22||4-H Beef Heifer Record|
|4-H M-5-32||4-H Project- Manual Red Meats|
|4-H L-5-36||Beef Lesson Plans for 4-H Leaders|
|Livestock Lessons for After School Enrichment Programs|
Reviewed by: Darwin G. Braund, Ph.D., Brinton A. Hopkins, Ph.D., Sharon Rogers Department of Animal Science and the following County Agents: Ralph E. Blalock (Edgecombe), Kathy Bunton (Alexander), Walter F. Earle (Wilson), and Michael H. Hobbs (Buncombe).