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Exam 2 - Version C

True/False -- Indicate "T" for true; "F" for false:

 1.  A Batesian model is always protected because it has some type
     of chemical defense.

 2.  An insect must use both eyes simultaneously to detect movement 
     of an object in its visual field.

 3.  Proprioceptors are sensory organs that provide information 
     about the external environment.

 4.  Most insects (such as grasshoppers and beetles) only see black,
     white, and shades of gray.

 5.  The closer an onject is, the more easily an insect can perceive
     its shape.

 6.  Male moths are able to regulate the sex of their offspring.

 7.  A commissure runs from the ganglion of one body segment to the
     ganglion of the next body segment.

 8.  Some insects can taste their food with their feet.

 9.  Dorsal ocelli are the primary visual organs of hemimetabolous

10.  Learned behavior is more complex and more efficient than innate


Multiple Choice

11.  The information content of a sound signal is based on changes in:
     A.  Amplitude (loudness)             C.  Duration (pulsation)
     B.  Frequency (pitch)                D.  All of these

12.  An ommatidium is the functional unit of the:
     A.  Protocerebrum                    C.  Compound eye
     B.  Subesophageal ganglion           D.  Male reproductive system

13.  Which of these could be an example of an entrainment cue?
     A.  Odor of a predator               C.  Darkness after sunset
     B.  Odor of a host plant             D.  Darkness before sunrise

14.  It is possible that an immature insect might imprint on:
     A.  Odor of a predator               C.  Darkness after sunset
     B.  Odor of a host plant             D.  Darkness before sunrise

15.  Which of these is a primary ecological event?
     A.  Competition                      C.  Parasitism
     B.  Immigration                      D.  None of these

16.  Which of these is a secondary ecological event?
     A.  Emigration                       C.  Mortality
     B.  Predation                        D.  None of these

17.  Which of these is an example of a Mullerian mimic?
     A.  A bee that looks like a wasp
     B.  A fly that looks like a bee
     C.  A katydid that looks like a leaf
     D.  A caterpillar that looks like a snake

Questions 18-20:  Indicate which structure is NOT part of the
     indicated system.

18.  Compound eye:
     A.  Rhabdom                          C.  Crystalline cone
     B.  Retinula cell                    D.  Seminal vesicle

19.  Visceral (stomodaeal) Nervous System:
     A.  Frontal ganglion                 C.  Hypocerebral ganglion
     B.  Recurrent nerve                  D.  Subesophageal ganglion

20.  Brain:
     A.  Optic lobes                      C.  Neurosecretory cells
     B.  Circumesophageal commissure      D.  Tritocerebrum

Short Answer

21.  List one part of the body that is innervated by each ganglion:

     a.  Hypocerebral:

     b.  Brain:

     c.  Subesophageal:

     d.  Caudal:

     e.  Frontal:

     f.  Mesothoracic:

22.  Give one example of:

     a.  A proprioceptor

     b.  A fixed action pattern

     c.  An appetative behavior

     d.  A transverse orientation

     e.  A Batesian mimic


Match each behavior in the left column with the term in the right
     column that correctly describes it.

23.  Fly larvae (maggots) move away from          A.  Reflex
     a bright light source.
                                                  B.  Taxis
24.  Honey bees trained to feed on sugar         
     water with coumarin are confused when        C.  Habituation
     given unscented sugar water.
                                                  D.  Conditioning
25.  A cockroach scurries away when it
     feels a puff of air on its cerci.            E.  Kinesis
26.  Ants remember a food trail by the            F.  Instrumental
     location of landmarks as they leave              Learning
     their nest.

27.  A male empiid fly courts a female for
     20 minutes and then gives up after he
     fails to elicit any response.

Short Essay

28.  Explain why some insects can navigate by the sun even when it
     is hidden behind clouds.

29.  Explain why the flowers that attract insect pollinators are
     seldom red in color.

30.  Explain how an insect may benefit from aposematic coloration. 

31.  Explain how predators might adapt to changes in the density
     of prey populations.

32.  Explain how contest competition can reduce intraspecific

33.  Explain how character displacement can reduce interspecific