Silk moth (Bombyx mori) on its cocoon
According to Chinese legend, silk was first discovered in 2640 BC by
Xilingji (Hsi-ling-chi), the 14-year-old wife of China's third emperor,
Huangdi (Huang-Ti). One day, as she was making tea in the palace garden,
Xilingji accidently dropped a silkworm cocoon into a cup of hot water and
discovered that the silk fiber could be loosened and unwound. By twisting
together fibers from several cocoons, she made a thread that was strong
enough to be woven into cloth.
No one is certain how much of this delightful story is true, but the
practice of sericulture (rearing silkworms for the production of
raw silk) is certainly older than recorded history. For centuries, it was
the Chinese nobility's most closely guarded secret. Only members of the
royal family were permitted to wear garments made of silk. But as the laws
regulating sericulture were gradually relaxed, explorers and traders began
to acquire enough samples of the fabric to create a demand for it in the
West. For a while, Persia became China's trading partner, buying silk and
reselling it to the Europeans at exorbitant prices. By the time the Han
dynasty finally authorized direct trade with Europe (around 140 BC), there
was an eager market for the fabric throughout most of the Roman Empire.
Despite constant danger from thieves, the Silk Road, a perilous overland
trade route through Asia Minor, came to be a major cultural link between
the two continents.
The silk trade made China a wealthy and powerful country. But according
to legend, the Roman Emperor Justinian balked at paying China's high prices
for silk. Around 550 AD, he recruited two Persian monks and sent them into
China as spies to learn the secrets of silk production. Two years later,
the monks returned to Constantinople (now Istanbul) with silkworm eggs
and mulberry seeds concealed within their hollow bamboo canes. The Turks
quickly established their own silk industry and broke China's monopoly.
The techniques of sericulture spread throughout the Mediterranean countries
during the 7th century AD and then into Spain and Sicily following the
Saracen invasion. By the 12th century, Italy had become the silk capital
of the West, and later, the French government spawned its own industry
by subsidizing farmers who planted mulberry orchards. For a short time,
sericulture even spread to England and the American colonies. In 1810,
a silk mill was built in Mansfield, Connecticut.
But during the twentieth century, the high cost of western labor, a
shortage of mulberry leaves, world wars, and two silkworm diseases (pebrine
and flacherie) have conspired to reduce the size and scope of western sericulture.
Today, most commercial silk production is confined to China and Japan where
it remains largely a cottage industry. India is still a major producer
of "wild" (Tussah) silk.