ZO 402 Web CT Link

Enrolled students and instructor-authorized guests have access to the syllabus, etc., by this link.

ZO 403 Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory (open) Web site

Citing Scientific Articles and Books

(revised 4/7/03)

Writing Scientific Names Properly

List of Major Body Design Characteristics of Invertebrates

(revised 4/7/03)

Links to Web Pages for Invertebrate Phylogeny

University of California Museum of Paleontology

This site not only has exhibits and articles on paleontology, but also on the phylogeny and classification of living things, including animals.

Another Good Web Museum of Paleontology

Tree of Life Project

This is a summary of the phylogeny of the higher taxa of living things.   Recently, some of the phylogenies have been removed pending incorporation of recent findings.   In the interim, it offers the simplified, traditional, and now widely thought to be incorrect phylogenies of invertebrates proposed in the textbook by Brusca and Brusca from about 1990.

World Wide Web Links for Invertebrates

Provided by University of Maine; many links are defunct.

American Scientist Article on Early Animal Evolution

This is an excellent, in-depth introduction to animal phylogeny.  It is a long article with many illustrations.

Picture Gallery of Macroinvertebrates of the Oceans off Antarctica

This is a "Field Guide" which contains about 100 color photographs made on the sea bottom or in the plankton of larger invertebrates of the Antarctic oceans.  While crabs and cephalopods are sparse, there are many, wonderfully bizarre sponges, isopods, polychaetes, and gastropods.  The accompanying text discusses the sizes, feeding niches, depth and geographical distribution, and general diversity of the animals.

Metazoan Diversity Home Page

Maintained by the University of Manchester (England) for teaching.  Discusses basic characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of many invertebrate phyla and classes.  I do not endorse their "best estimation summary," a strange kingdom phylogeny of animals included on their "Relationships" page.

The Garey Web Page

Includes other links, summaries and diagrams from recent research papers on several issues in the phylogeny of lower invertebrates.

Taxonomy of Turbellaria

Louise Bush and Seth Tyler of the University of Maine have p[roposed a complete classification of free-living flatworm species, often with illustrations gleaned from obscure publications or unpublished files.

Systematics of Platyhelminthes (in French)

This is a general discussion, with links to source papers that are often in English.  Near the bottom of the page, it links to a picture of Ehler's 1985 phylogeny of Platyhelminthes, still widely but not universally accepted   This article is partly in response to a letter from Tyler (see link "Taxonomy of Turbellaria" above), Rieger and Smith criticizing a 1999 Science article by Ruiz-Trillo, et al., that proposed a major revision of lower invertebrate phylogeny.

Phylogeny, Classification and Characteristics of Tapeworms

This is a PowerPoint slide talk with a good explanation of the syncytial (British spelling syncitial) epidermis and great scanning EM images of the epidermis of adult tapeworms.  It cites a 2001 reference for a Platyhelminthes phylogeny in the early slides. Compare to notes for 2/10/03.

Symbiotic Polychaetes

We normally think of polychaetes as free-living, but many dozens of species live in close, even obligate relationships with other marine organisms.  This page links to a downloadable, Adobe Acrobat ",pdf" document, a preprint of a published review paper with numerous illustrations and links.

A Placozoa link

Maintaind by Richard Howey of Wyoming, this is a chatty tale of his surprised recognition of Trichoplax, the only genus in the phylum Placozoa, in mixed marine material that he was scanning for protozoans.  Includes links to other sources and a good deal about the biology and ecology of Trichoplax.

UCMP / Berkeley Page on Placozoa

A good complement to the link immediately above.

Cycliophora, a Phylum Discovered in 1995

An illustrated explanation of its distinguishing characteristics, the importance of its discovery, and the ecology of Symbion pandora, the first known cycliophoran.  It is ectocommensal on lobster antennae!  It appears to be most closely related to Entoprocta and Ectoprocta.  It was named by R. M. Krstensen.  The last phylum to be discovered before Cycliophora was Loricifera, again by R. M. Kristensen of Denmark, in 1983.

A New, Phylum-Level Taxon: Micrognathozoa

This is a rich site with many pages of information and pictures of a new, small, gnathostomulid-like animal found in Arctic springs by R. M Kristensen and his colleagues and students.  It includes a discussion of its relationship to three other phyla: Rotifera, Acanthocephala, and Gnathostomulida.  This may top Cycliophora as the most recently discovered phylum.

Phylogeny of Phoronida

Site maintained by Dr. Christian Emig of the Center of Oceanology in Marseilles, France, in English as well as other languages. Includes several, alternate phylogenetic diagrams of lophophorates and related phyla.

Recent and Fossil Bryozoa

Maintained by Dr. Phil Bock of RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, for the International Bryozoology Association, as part of a larger site called "Paleo Ring."   Has links to pictures of modern bryozoans (= ectoprocts), as well as many fossils.

Introduction to the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Text portion of the C. elegans Web site, on a local server

Maintained by Sam Mozley (click here to E-mail a message)



Last modified April 14, 2003