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Dr. John Dole
CALS Interim Associate Dean and Director for Academic Programs; Floriculture Professor

John Dole

Contact Information

Patterson Hall 111, Box 7609
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

Office Phone: 919.515.5540


General Information


  • Michigan State University, B.S. in Horticulture, 1984
  • University of Minnesota, Ph.D. in Horticulture with emphasis on plant physiology, 1989

John Dole specializes in floricultural crops research and teaches floriculture courses including Greenhouse Management, HS 440, and Production of Floriculture Crops, HS 442 . In addition, he serves as Executive Advisor for the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers,, and co-authored Floriculture Principles and Species, 2nd edition, 2005, with Harold F. Wilkins (,1144,0130462500,00.html or other book selling websites).

Publications Repository


  • Crop Management and New Crop Species Development - Cut Flowers. The production of specialty cuts in North Carolina and in the United States continues to increase. North Carolina State University is recognized as the only university in the United States with a comprehensive research program on greenhouse and field cut flowers. Our program includes new cultivar evaluations, production studies, postharvest experiments, and marketing analysis. In cooperation with the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers (ASCFG), we coordinate the national ASCFG Seed, Perennial and Woody Plant Trial Programs which includes over forty participating growers around the United States and Canada. This work has been supported by the ASCFG, the American Floral Endowment, the International Cut Flower Growers, and numerous suppliers and producers.
  • Crop Management and New Crop Species Development - Bedding and Potted Plants. The rapid development of the plug and vegetatively-propagated bedding plant industry has been one of the most significant changes in the floriculture industry in the past 20 years. This has resulted in new production methods and dozens of new floriculture crop species on the market. Unfortunately, little information exists on many of the new species. We have been working on providing production protocols for several new species. In addition, since the floriculture industry relies so heavily on shipping of cuttings, we are working on the postharvest handling of unrooted and rooted cuttings. This work has been supported by the Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation and numerous suppliers and producers.
  • Development of cost accounting techniques and tools for floriculture crop producers. In today’s competitive environment, floriculture businesses must be equally adept at producing and marketing their crops and managing their businesses to generate a profit. One indicator of floriculture production expenses, $/ft2/week or $/ft2/year, is useful for producers to evaluate their production efficiency. We are updating the $/ft2/week figure for bedding and potted plant producers and the $/ft2/year figure for cut flower producers. In addition, we will focus on correlating automation with characteristics of floriculture companies and developing simplified tools for payback and cost of production analyses. This work has been supported by the North Carolina Commercial Flower Growers’ Association and by numerous producers.


  • HS 440-Greenhouse Management
  • Greenhouse Management, HS 440, is a junior/senior level course that serves students in a variety of departments including Horticultural Science, Agricultural Education, and Botany. The course is taught in the fall and is divided into two sections. The first half of the course explains the principles of plant physiology needed to produce plants within a controlled environment, including media, nutrition, water, light, and temperature. The second section of the course deals with greenhouse operations and management such as greenhouse construction, heating, and cooling and business management, marketing, and advertising. In the laboratory students grow a wide range of floriculture crops including potted plants, cut flowers, bedding plants, and foliage plants and at least one field trip is taken. In addition, pest management and plant growth regulators are covered.
  • HS 442-Production of Floricultural Crops
  • Production of Floriculture Crop, HS is a junior/senior level course and the floriculture capstone course. Since well over 200 species are used regularly by floriculture industry, the overall goal of this course is to explain the basic production and marketing systems in floriculture using the major crop species as examples. A key component of the course is a term project on scheduling the crop production of a commercial greenhouse for one year and estimating the costs/profits for the entire operation. Much of the project can be completed using a computer spreadsheet. My goals for this project are to 1) emphasize the economic aspects of a floriculture business and 2) incorporate the information they have learned into a practical plan.

Selected Publications

  • Ahmad, I., B.E. Whipker, J.M. Dole, and I. McCall. 2013. Paclobutrazol and ancymidol lower water use of potted ornamental plants and plugs. HortTechnology.
  • Ahmad, I., E.M.R. Clark, J.M. Dole and F.A. Blazich. 2013. Effects of floral (oasis) foam and/or conventional or organic preservatives on the vase-life and quality of cut rose (Rosa x hybrida L.) stems and flowers. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech.
  • Ahmad, I, J.M. Dole, A.S. Carlson and F.A. Blazich. 2013. Water quality effects on postharvest performance of cut calla, hydrangea, and snapdragon. Scientia Hort. 153:26-33.
  • Ahmad, I., J.M. Dole, M. Saleem, M.A. Khan, A. Akram, and A.S. Khan. 2013. Preservatives and packaging materials have an impact on the post-harvest longevity of cut Rosa hybrida L. ‘Kardinal’ flowers. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 88:251-256.
  • Kamenetsky, R. and J. M. Dole. 2012. Herbaceous peony (Paeonia): genetics, physiology and cut flower production. Floriculture Ornamental Biotechnol. 6 (Special Issue 1):62-77.
  • Ahmad, I. and J. M. Dole. 2012. Dry storage effects on postharvest performance of selected cut flowers. HortTechnology 22:463-469.
  • Ahmad, I., J. M. Dole and P. Nelson. 2012. Nitrogen application rate, leaf position and age affect leaf nutrient status of five specialty cut flowers. Scientia Hort. 142:14-22.
  • Clark, E.M.R., J.M. Dole, A.S. Carlson, E.P. Moody, I.F. McCall, F.L. Fanelli, and W.C. Fonteno. 2010. Vase life of new cut flower cultivars. HortTechnology 20:1016-1025.
  • Ahmad, I., J.M. Dole, M.A. Khan, M. Qasim , T. Ahmad and A.S. Khan. 2010. Present Status and Future Prospects of Cut Rose Production in Punjab, Pakistan. HortTechnology 20:1010-1015.
  • Regan, E.R. and J.M. Dole. 2010. Postharvest handling procedures of Matthiola incana 'Vivas Blue’. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 58:268-273.
  • Dole, J.M., Z. Viloria, F.L. Fanelli and W. Fonteno. 2009. Postharvest evaluation of cut dahlia, linaria, lupine, poppy, rudbeckia, trachelium and zinnia. HortTechnology 19:593-600.
  • Dole, J.M. and L. Greer. 2009. Production protocol development for greenhouse cut Linaria, Lupinus, and Papaver flowers. Scientia Hort. 122:233-237.
  • Leatherwood, W.R., J.M. Dole and J.E. Faust. 2009. Ethephon residual catalysis on unrooted Impatiens hawkeri cuttings and stock plants. HortScience 44:532-535.
  • Rapaka, V.K., J.E. Faust, J.M. Dole, and E.S. Runkle. 2008. Endogenous carbohydrate status affects postharvest sensitivity in relation to leaf senescence and adventitious root formation in Pelargonium cuttings. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 48:272-282.
  • Rapaka, V.K., J.E. Faust, J.M. Dole, and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Carbohydrate dynamics affect postharvest ethylene responsiveness in portulaca (Portulaca grandiflora ‘Yubi Deep Rose’) unrooted cuttings. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 44:293-299.
  • Rapaka, V.K., J.E. Faust, J.M. Dole, and E.S. Runkle. 2007. Effect of time of harvest on postharvest leaf abscission in lantana (Lantana camara L. ‘Dallas Red’) unrooted cuttings. HortScience 42:304-308.
  • Gibson, J.L., W.A. Williams, B.E. Whipker, P.V. Nelson, J.M. Dole, B. Cleveland, and F.R. Walls. 2007. Foliar symptomology and tissue concentrations of nutrient-deficient vegetative strawflower plants. Commun.Soil Sci.Plant Analysis 38:2279-2294.
  • Krug, B.A., B.E. Whipker, I. McCall, and J.M. Dole. 2006. Narcissus response to plant growth regulators. HortTechnology 16:129-132.
  • Greer, L. and J. M. Dole. 2005. Defoliation of woody cut stems with preharvest, less toxic chemical and postharvest environmental methods. HortTechnology 15:376-380.
  • Krug, B.A., B.E. Whipker, I. McCall, and J.M. Dole. 2005. Comparison of flurprimidol to ethephon, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole for hyacinth height control. HortTechnology 15:872-874.
  • Krug, B.A., B.E. Whipker, I. McCall, and J.M. Dole. 2005. Comparison of flurprimidol to ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole for tulip height control. HortTechnology 15:370-373.
  • Dole, J.M., P. Fisher, and G. Njue. 2004. Optimizing postharvest life of cut ‘Renaissance Red’ poinsettias. HortScience 39:1366-1370.
  • Dole, J.M. 2003. Research approaches for evaluating cold requirements for forcing and flowering of geophytes. HortScience 38:341-346.
  • Blankenship, S.M. and J.M. Dole. 2003. 1-Methylcyclopropene: A review. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 28:1-25.
  • Bosma, T.L., J.M. Dole, and N.O. Maness. 2003. Optimizing marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) petal and pigment yield. Crop Sci. 43:2118-2124.
  • Greer, L. and J.M. Dole. 2003. Aluminum foil, aluminum-painted, plastic, and degradable mulches increase yield and decrease insect-vectored viral diseases of vegetables. HortTechnology 13:276-284.
  • Bosma, T.L., K.E. Conway, J.M. Dole, and N.O. Maness. 2003. Sowing dates and priming influence African marigold field emergence. HortTechnology 13:487-493.
  • Frost, M.D., J.C. Cole and J.M. Dole. 2003. Fertilizer source affects iron, manganese, and zinc leaching, nutrient distribution, and geranium growth. J. Plant Nutr. 26:315-329.
  • Cavins, T.J., L. Greer, J.L. Gibson, B.E. Whipker, and J.M. Dole. 2003. Response of marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink' to plant growth regulators. PGRSA Quarterly 31(1):2-7.