Achene: a small, dry, indehiscent fruit with a single locule and a single seed (ovule) attached to the ovary wall at a single point.

Acrid: strongly bitter to the taste.

Afebrile: without fever.   

Agalactia: failure to secrete milk

Alternate: leaf arrangement when only one leaf is at any one level on the stem.

Anemic: deficient in either hemoglobin or red blood cells.

Annual: a plant completing its entire life cycle in one growing season.

Anorexia: loss of appetite for food.

Anoxia: absence or deficiency of oxygen.

Anthelmintic: chemical that destroys intestinal worms.

Anuria: decrease in urinary secretion to 100 ml or less in 24 hours.

Arthrogryposis: persistent flexure of a joint; retention of a joint in a fixed position.

Asphyxia: death due to insufficient oxygen in the blood.

Astringent: a chemical that shrinks tissues.

Ataxia: lack of coordination.

Atony: lack of normal tone (vigor and tension).

Berry: a type of fruit that is usually fleshy throughout.

Biennial: a plant which lives two years.

Blade: the broad and flat portion of a leaf.

Bloat: abnormal amount of gas in the first stomach of cattle.

Bradycardia: abnormally slow heart rate and pulse.

Capsule: a type of fruit that is dry and splits along two or more lines.

Cardiac: pertaining to the heart

Cathartic: a purging medicine intermediate in action between a laxative and purgative.

Catkin: an inflorescence crowded with small, unisexual flowers lacking petals; usually pendant.

Cholestasis: retention and accumulation of bile in the liver.

Coma: a condition of insensibility.

Conjunctivity: inflammation of the membrane lining the eye and eyelids.

Convulsions: a violent uncontrolled series of muscular contractions.

Corolla: a collective term for the petals of a flower.

Cyanosis: turning blue or purple due to a lack of oxygen in the blood.

Cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Delirium: a state of frenzied excitement.

Demulcent: a substance, such as oil or lard, that can soothe or protect inflamed mucous membranes.

Diarrhea: abnormal and frequent discharge of a liquid substance from the intestines.

Dilated pupils: enlarged pupils.

Diuretic: a chemical that increases the secretion and discharge of urine.

Drupe: a fruit type with a fleshy outside and a stony pit in the center that contains the seed.

Dyspnea: shortness of breath; difficulty or labored respiration.  Dyspneic, adj.

Dysuria: painful urination.

Ecchymotic: discolored skin or soft tissue due to invasion of blood.

Edema: excessive accumulation of body fluid in tissues and cavities.

Emetic: a chemical or substance that causes vomiting.

Enteritis: inflammation of the intestinal tract.

Entire: a leaf margin that is smooth, not toothed or wavy.

Epistaxis: hemorrhage from the nose.

Floret: the individual flower of the grasses.

Follicle: a type of fruit that is dry and opens by only one slit.

Friable: breaks easily into small pieces.

Gastritis: inflammation of the stomach.

Gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

Glabrous: devoid of hairs or scales.

Glaucous: covered with a whitish or bluish, waxy coating.

Heinz-bodies: round aggregates of precipitated, denatured hemoglobin attached to red blood cell membranes.

Hematuria: blood in the urine.

Hemoglobinuria: having hemoglobin in the urine.

Hemolysis: distintegration of elements in the blood.

Hemoptysis: saliva containing blood from bronchial and/or pulmonary hemorrhage.    

Hemorrhage: a copious discharge of blood from the vessels; excessive bleeding.

Herbaceous: a plant that is nonwoody and that dies back to the ground each year.

Hyperemia: distention of the blood vessels due to increased blood in a body part.

Hyperkalemic: with excess potassium in the blood.

Hypocalcemia: low amount of calcium in the blood.

Hypoplasia: incomplete development of an organ or tissue.

Hypoxia: an abnormally decreased supply or concentration of oxygen.

Icterus: jaundice; a yellowish coloration of skin, tissues, and body fluids.

Inflorescence: the arrangement or grouping of flowers in a branch system.

Keratitis: inflammation of the cornea.

Laminitis: inflammation of the laminae of a horse’s foot.

Laryngeal: pertaining to the larynx.

Laxative: a chemical that produces a mild intestinal discharge or evacuation.

Leaflet: the blade-like portion of a divided (compound) leaf.

Leukopenia: marked reduction in the numbers of circulating white blood cells.

Methemoglobinemia: oxidized hemoglobin; a condition in which the blood is incapable of carrying oxygen.

Mucous membrane: thin lining of many of the cavities and passages in the body.

Mydriasis: prolonged or excessive dilation of the pupil of the eye.

Myocarditis: inflammation of the muscular substance of the heart.

Narcotic: drug, which in moderate doses, causes insensibility and relieves pain; in large amounts produces stupor or convulsions.

Nausea: sickness of the stomach and an urge to vomit.

Necrosis: localized death of living tissue.

Nephrosis: a disease of the kidney.

Nut: a dry, hard, indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit, with or without an outer husk.

Oliguria: decrease in urinary secretion to 100-400 ml in 24 hours.

Opisthotonos: a violent spasm that flexes the head and feet backward.

Opposite: two leaves, opposing each other, at any one level on the stem.

Ovule: an immature seed; the megasporangium and surrounding integuments of a seed plant.

Panicle: rather broad and often many-branched inflorescence.

Parenteral: otherwise than through the alimentary canal.

Pedicel: stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence.

Perennial: plants that continue to live year after year.

Perianth: collective term for the sepals and petals of a flower.

Petal: one unit of the inner whorl of sterile parts of the flower; usually colored and showy.

Petechial: minute, red spots due to the escape of small amounts of blood.

Petiole: the stalk of a leaf.

Pistil: the central structure(s) of a flower which develops into the fruit after fertilization.

Polyuria: excessive urination.

Proteinuria: protein in the urine.

Pubescent: hairy.

Purgative: a chemical causing a very strong intestinal evacuation.

Purging: an evacuation of the intestinal tract.

Raceme: a rather elongated and slender inflorescence in which the pedicels are attached to a simple central axis.

Rachis: the axis of an inflorescence or of a compound leaf.

Renal: pertaining to the kidney.

Respiratory: pertaining to the lungs and other breathing organs.

Rhizome: an underground stem

Rootstock: an underground, rootlike stem.

Rosette: a dense radiating cluster of leaves (or other plant organs), usually at or near ground level.

Ruminotorics: compounds used in the treatment of rumen hypomotility; i.e., to stimulate rumen motility.

Salivation: an excessive discharge of saliva from the mouth.

Scurfy: scaly or rough to the touch.

Sedative: a chemical that eases excitement or pain.

Seed: a ripened ovule after fertilization; embryonic plant within a protective coat.

Sepal: one unit of the outer whorl of sterile parts of the flower; often green but sometimes colored.

Sessile: attached directly to the stem, without a petiole or pedicel.

Spasm: an uncontrolled and unnatural muscular contraction.

Spikelet: one of the small parts that form the head in grasses; containing one to many florets.

Sporangia: small containers of spores.

Spore: a minute structure, not a seed, which is capable of developing into a new individual; reproductive body in many primitive plants (e.g., ferns).

Stamen: the part of a flower in which the pollen is formed; the pollen-bearing organ of a flower.

Stasis: a stoppage of flow as of blood or other fluids, or intestinal contents.

Stimulant: a chemical that temporarily increases activity.

Stipules: two small leaves at the base of a leaf.

Stomatitis: inflammation of the oral mucous membranes.

Stupor: partial or complete unconsciousness.

Tachycardia: rapid heart action and pulse.

Tenesmus: ineffectual and painful straining at stool or in urination.

Tremor: an involuntary trembling, shivering, or shaking.

Umbel: an inflorescence in which all the flower pedicels arise from the same point at the tip of the stem

Urethritis: inflammation of the urethra

Vertigo: dizziness, often resulting in staggering.

Whorled: three or more leaves arising at any one level on a stem.



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