Unless otherwise indicated, the photographs in this work were taken by A. Krings (North Carolina State University). Additional photographs were kindly provided courtesy of: Bill Adams, Larry Allain, Ann Arbor Natural Areas Preservation Unit, Appalachian State University Herbarium (BOON), Thomas G. Barnes, Steven J. Baskauf (Vanderbilt University), Ted Bodner, Misty Buchanan (nee Franklin; NC Natural Heritage Program), Merry Conlin, Liz Fial (, Gary Fleming, Elaine Haug, D.E. Herman, John Hilty (, Fred Hrusa (CDFA), Michael Juskelis (, William S. Justice, Kim Laidig (New Jersey Pinelands Commission), Linda Lee (University of South Carolina), Virginia Lohr (Washington State University), Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Jeff McMillian, Missouri Botanical Garden PlantFinder, R. Mohlenbrock, Fred Morris, Nora Murdock,, North Carolina Native Plant Society, North Carolina State University Herbarium (NCSC), Hugh and Carol Nourse, Janet Novak, James Padgett (NC Natural Heritage Program), Jeffrey Pippen (Duke University), Derick Poindexter (Appalachian State University), Paul Redfearn, Eleanor Saulys, USDA PLANTS, E. LaVerne Smith, Jim Stasz, Summers, Rob Sutter, Ruth Timme, Mike Turner, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Herbarium (NCU), University of South Carolina Herbarium (USCH), James Van Kley (Stephen F. Austin State University), and John Wright (wildflowersofontario). Photos may not be re-used or professionally printed without the express, written permission of the aforementioned copyright owners. Line drawings are derived from the public domain Britton & Brown (1913 [An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions]) and from: Beal (1960 [Manual of Marsh and Aquatic Vascular Plants of North Carolina]: Sagittaria), Blomquist (1957 [Brittonia]: Hexastylis), the Flora of North America Association (Amaranthus, Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey, illustrator; Carex, Susan A. Reznicek, illustrator; Lindera, John K. Myers, illustrator), LeBlond (1994 [Sida]: Carex), Patrick et al. (1995 [Protected Plants of Georgia]: Geum [Waldsteinia], Lysimachia; Vicky Holifield, illustrator), and Sorrie et al. (2007 [J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas]: Sagittaria).

Maps are provided courtesy of the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program and USDA PLANTS. Where our taxonomy differed with USDA PLANTS, new maps were generated based on herbarium, literature, and field study. For consistency, empty USDA PLANTS base maps were populated, and both data and map sources acknowledged.

The thumbnail viewer was developed by Highslide Software (Torstein Hønsi, proprietor). Code for expanding/collapsing content was modified from the public domain code developed by Leo Charre and Jesse Fergusson ( Code for the dropbox shadow was provided by Robert Nyman (

Special thanks are due to (1) Misty Buchanan (NC Natural Heritage Program), Rob Evans (NC Plant Conservation Program), Laura Gadd (NC Natural Heritage Program), Derick Poindexter (Appalachian State University), and Lesley Starke (NC Plant Conservation Program), whose expertise greatly facilitated the locating and imaging of taxa, and (2) Shawn Oakley (NC Natural Heritage Program) and Derick Poindexter (Appalachian State University) for critically reviewing the work prior to release.

Funding for this project was provided through a seed grant from the North Carolina State University Office of Extension, Engagement, and Economic Development (PI Krings) and in-kind support from the United States Fish &Wildlife Service. Additional support for staffing and facilities was provided through the NC Cooperative Extension Service, the NC Agricultural Research Service, the College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Academic Programs (this project was originally conceived as an outgrowth of the PIs course: Rare Plants of North Carolina [PB464/595]), the Department of Plant & Microbial Biology, and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, acc. nos. 62303 and 1002682.