See the following links, NC State HPC and external, for learning HPC concepts and skills, from beginner to advanced.
If you have an account on Henry2, log in and type the commands into the terminal. If not, set up your environment using Learn Linux without Linux.
Go to Essential Linux, try the 8 basic commands, and create a text file using nano.
Go through the minimal set of the LinkedIn Learning video tutorial. Most of the video content is explaining basic concepts, such as why we would want a command line instead of a GUI, how directories and files are structured, and how commands are formed. It explains Linux in terms of what you already know from using Windows or a Mac. After that, it goes over clearly and in depth - with great examples - all of the 'bare minimum' commands.
Go through the entire LinkedIn Learning video course. If some sections seem boring to you, still go through them but at higher playback speed so you don't miss any background from skipped sections.
Going through the text based Full Linux Tutorial is the most efficient way to learn the most commands as quickly as possible.
Go through the Software Carpentry Tutorial. They start from zero, but go into further depth and introduce shell scripting. After that, do the Full Linux Tutorial. You will skim through the first few sections, pick up some new concepts in the next few, and learn some extras in the last couple sections.
Also, take advantage of the NC State subscription to LinkedIn Learning. There are several advanced courses on Linux.
This webinar discusses how to find CPU specs, memory quantity, cache configuration, file systems, OS version, GPU properties, and instruction sets (ISA). It also discusses why one should understand them, and it includes a short discussion of profiling, monitoring, and optimizing. The target audience is developers - users who write parallel programs but are not necessarily familiar with all of the hardware and performance terms. It is also helpful for users who are familiar with general hardware information but do not know how to find that information on Henry2.