- Moodle modular object-oriented
dynamic learning environment - "Moodle is a software package for
producing internet-based courses and web sites" and "is an ongoing
research and development project designed to support a social
constructionist pedagogy for students, teachers and developers."
Release 3.1 is scheduled for release in May 2016. This site includes some
demonstration courses. Commercial
support is available.
An interesting development with respect to commercial support is the
of two of the leading Moodle support providers by
Blackboard, the leading commercial LMS provider.
- The Open
Knowledge Initiative (OKI) The result of this collaboration is an
open and extensible architecture that specifies how the components of an
educational software environment communicate with each other and with
other enterprise systems. O.K.I. provides a modular development platform
for building both traditional and innovative applications while
leveraging existing and future infrastructure technologies.
- CHEF Initiative
The CompreHensive collaborativE Framework (CHEF) initiative
has as its goal, the development of a flexible environment for
supporting distance learning and collaborative work, and doing research
on distance learning and collaborative work. ... working closely with
and are contributing to the OKI reference architecture, and are
collaborating with other groups interested in open source collaboration
standards." It is being used in the
- Sakai Project "to
integrate and synchronize ... educational software into a
pre-integrated collection of open source tools."
- OpenSeminar "OpenSeminar is an
open courseware platform that enables professors from different
universities to work collaboratively to create an online seminar and
then customize it to the needs of their own students." (or they could be
on the same campus :-)
from Open Source: Intellectual Property and Courseware
- Open Source Portfolio
Initiative OSP - an electronic portfolio content management system
oriented to educational uses - now part of Sakai
- ATutor "is an Open Source
Web-based Learning Content Management System (LCMS) designed with
accessibility and adaptability in mind. ..."
- Blackboard's new broad U.S. Patent No. 6,988,138 has caused
considerable concern in the Open Source Learning Management System community.
Educause took a strong position emphasizing their
an Oct. 2006 letter. Blackboard, on Feb. 1, 2007 announced a
pledge with respect to "open source software or home-grown course
management systems" which are not bundled with proprietary software.
(This link has links to the patent and much other material.)
Educause's response is
positive with strong reservations.
- Xerte "a full
suite of open source tools for elearning developers and content authors
producing interactive learning materials."
Discussion on Open Source
"Just as the end of the 19th century was marked by the
genesis of industrial production methods, the end of the 20th century
has seen the equally revolutionary open source methods just begin to
generate steam. What does the future hold for open source? The answer is
up for grabs, but in an attempt to provide a forecast, Wide Open News
put that question to an array of luminaries looking to the horizon. Big
thinkers like historian George Dyson and futurist Paul Saffo tell us why
open source is not so new, the hurdles it faces in the future, and
more." (quoted from the former WideOpen magazine)
Open Source in the
Software discussion by GNU and the Free Software Foundation
There is extensive discussion at this site.
European working group on libre
[Open Source] software "The working group on libre software was created at the
initiative of the Information Society Directorate General, with the
purpose to analyze the free software phenomenon, create a set of
recommendations for the Community and create a paper to be presented to
the Commission. The group featured both people from the Commission and
representative members from the EU countries.
After several meeting, the group finalized a paper, edited by Carlo
Daffara and Jeszs M. Gonzalez-Barahona and presented at the IST'99
conference in Helsinki, during the special session track on libre
software. The 1.0 version (work-in-progress) of the paper is available
for download ..." (see Abstract)
The Case for Government Promotion of Open Source
Software A NetAction White Paper by Mitch Stolz. "An alternative
method of software development, called open source software, creates
robust, secure software through a process of widespread peer review.
This paper explains the open source concept and attempts to show how
government can use open source as a vehicle for promoting economic
development and as a policy tool which could assist the Justice
Department in its antitrust action against Microsoft." Definitions,
history, recommendations and links.
OpenSource.org The Open
Source Initiative" is a non-profit corporation dedicated to managing and
promoting the Open Source Definition for the good of the community".
Links to many discussions and presentations.
open source IT "info on
software tools and products in the open source arena" and other news and
Open Source Convention July, 2001. Includes Craig Mundie's (he's a
Microsoft Senior VP) prepared remarks.
Internet Under Siege by Lawrence Lessig "Who owns the Internet?
Until recently, nobody. That's because, although the Internet was "Made
in the U.S.A.," its unique design transformed it into a resource for
innovation that anyone in the world could use. Today, however, courts
and corporations are attempting to wall off portions of cyberspace. In
so doing, they are destroying the Internet's potential to foster
democracy and economic growth worldwide."
Free Culture by Lawrence
Lessig "consider[s] the diminishment of the larger public domain of
ideas. In this powerful wake-up call he shows how short-sighted
interests blind to the long-term damage they're inflicting are poisoning
the ecosystem that fosters innovation." This book is available in
print, and as a free download under a Creative Commons licens. An
Free as in
Freedom - Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software By Sam
Why Open Source
Software / Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers! by David A.
Source an "Open Source Software" bill in Oregon "would mandate that
any state government agency consider open-source software for all new
software acquisitions and make purchasing decisions based on a
"value-for-money basis." Moreover, under the act, state workers would
have to avoid buying products that don't comply with open standards."
Open Source Summit:
Public Interest & Policy Issues at Georgetowne U., 2002
the open-source development model Programmers contribute to free
software and open-source projects for many reasons--"
Free / Open Source Research
Community (F/OSS) Online papers,
announcements, and more.
Microsoft's Misunderstanding of Open Source Hurts Us All by Robert X.
embraces open source -- to a point
The Art of
Unix Programming by Eric Steven Raymond. (The paper edition is
available from Amazon, among other sellers.) (From the Preface: This
book has a lot of knowledge in it, but it is mainly about expertise. It
is going to try to teach you the things about Unix development that
Unix experts know, but aren't aware that they know. It is therefore less
about technicalia and more about shared culture than most Unix
books - both explicit and implicit culture, both conscious and
unconscious traditions. It is not a `how-to' book, it is a `why-to'
book.) While the topic of this book isn't Open Source, it does deal
extensively with the culture of Open Source, which is not strange since
much of the Open Source movement has come from the Unix community.
and open source software activities in European Information Society
Source Channel Discussion and information.
The Open Source Software
Portal Open Technology
Slashdot "News for Nerds,
Stuff that Matters" Lots of news including Open Source topics.
NCSU TLTR Teaching,
Learning & Technology Roundtable - some discussion of Open
The Open Source Applications
Eric Steven Raymond's Home
Page The personal site of a maintainer of "quite a lot of
open-source software, FAQs, and HTML documents" and the author of "The
Cathedral and the Bazaar" This is his "analysis of how and why the Linux
development model works"
Open Source / Open Science
Conference 1999 at Brookhaven National Labs
Linux Today Linux
AFUL Association Francophone des
Utilisateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres
software for all by Bernard Lang (1998)
MyOpen Source Malaysian
Open Source Group
TUX "Tux.Org, Incorporated is a
nonprofit organization providing resources for the development, support,
and education needs of openly developed software." (many links)
OASIS "the Organization for
the Advancement of Structured Information Standards, is a nonprofit,
international consortium dedicated to accelerating the adoption of
product-independent formats based on public standards. These standards
include SGML, XML, HTML and CGM as well as others that are related to
structured information processing. Members of OASIS are providers, users
and specialists of the technologies that make these standards work in
from the Machine an old philosophical essay by Brad McCormick
of OS (WOS)
Software in the Public Interest,
Inc. "a non-profit organization which was founded to help
organizations develop and distribute open hardware and software. We
encourage programmers to use any license that allows for the free
modification, redistribution and use of software, and hardware
developers to distribute documentation that will allow device drivers to
be written for their product."
Law and open source: The more the merrier? by Paul Jones, Director
of MetaLab, UNC-CH. "Does the open source development method defy the
adage about cooks in the kitchen?" Many good links.
Empirical Examination of 100 Mature Open Source Projects by Sandeep
Krishnamurthy. While there are some well publicized OS projects
developed by large communities, the vast majority are developed by one
or a few developer.
Who's Who in Open Source
UNIX Philosophy by Mike Gancarz. Not technical. The same author
wrote "Linux and the UNIX Philosophy" later.
Eben Moglen articles.
He is General Counsel, Free Software Foundation and Prof. of Law at
Columbia U., and a number of his articles are about open source and
related topics. He has a blog.
He has led the founding and now is the Chairman of the Board of
the Software Freedom Law
Center (SFLC) which "provides legal representation and other
law related services to protect and advance FOSS." (Free and Open
Free Software the Wave of the Future? by David S. Evans in the
Milken Institute Review. An economic analysis of open source vs.
proprietary software. (Click on the story in the index, and then a
(free) login is required.)
Public money, private code The drive to license academic research
for profit is stifling the spread of software that could be of universal
Source in Peru whether or not this letter is bogus, it raises many
interesting points for discussion.
Center for the Study of the
Public Domain at Duke Law. It includes a link to an issue of Law
& Contemporary Problems on "The Public Domain"
Professor James Boyle Duke Law
School (articles and links)
SCO vs IBM, Linux, et al
source 'whitepaper' devastated a scathing review of a publication of
the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution (AdTI).
Finds Linux Enterprise Ready Today "Given Forrester's numbers it's
clear that big business now believes that Linux is enterprise-ready."
Source 2007: How Did This Happen? by Brad Wheeler in Educause Review
"Developing sustainable economics and advancing the frontiers of
innovation are the dual challenges for application software in higher
CAPP/EAL3+ Security Certification for Linux "As far as we know, no
Open Source program has been certified for securityuntil now. Al-though
some people believed that it was not possible for an Open Source program
to re-ceive a security certification, we have proven otherwise by
obtaining a Common Criteria se-curity certification for SuSE SLES 8
SP3." (The enterprise marketplace considers this certification to be
somewhat important - but there are some ease-of-use hits.)
Next Wave: Liberation Technology by John M. Unsworth. "In
everything from course management to big enterprise systems,
universities must choose between monopolies and the open approach" An
excellent discussion of the history and current status of the open
source movement - emphasizing software relevant to higher education.
Is the Answer. Now What Was the Question? by Gregory A. Jackson.
This essay discusses the benefits and costs of open source vs.
proprietary software - and has a clear discussion of the costs of "free"
is adopting Linux and other open-source software for its public
Perens: When open source makes sense
Inc. BusinessWeek Online story about Linux Torvalds and how he has
changed his leadership of Linux development over the past five years,
and about the relationships with the corporate world.
Copyright Fair use and "digital environmentalism" by Robert S.
Boynton. Copyright has been grabbing more and more rights of the public,
and this trend is now being opposed by the new "digital environmentalists".
The Fair Use Network "How
much can you borrow, quote or copy from someone else's work?"
Issues from OSS Watch
Open Source Licenses and Discussion
Open Source Licenses
(F/OSS) Online papers, announcements,
Documentation License (GFDL) for manuals, books, documents - this
license is used by the Wikipedia.
license from MIT
The Approved Licenses
of The Open Source Initiative - an index of many licenses
Mozilla & Netscape Public
Licenses and a FAQ
comparing some of the common Open Source licenses.
open licensing of non-executable content.
Open Publication License
Draft v1.0 (used by Debian)
An Author's Open Source
License version 1.0 (click on License Agreement on the Coyote Gulch
page) This agreement "is a modified version of the 'Artistic License',
as provided by opensource.org."
QPL Open Source
GOSL The GALEN
Open Source License Version 1.0
The Apache Software
License Version 2.0
licenses, e.g. Perl's use of two alternates
license and discussion
Common Public License (CPL) by IBM v 1.0 FAQ
which includes discussion of the IBM Public License (IPL)
IBM Public License Version 1.0
Project Public License "is the primary license under
which the the LaTeX kernel and the base LaTeX packages are distributed."
Computer Associates (CA) Trusted Open Source License (CATSOL or
CA-TSOL) A reciprocal license said to be similar to that of Apache's.