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An on-line African Educational Research Journal



The African Symposium (TAS)

The Online Journal of African Educational Research Network


TAS is an interdisciplinary, fully refereed, online journal dedicated to publishing the finest scholarship related to African educational and human development issues. TAS invites the submission of original manuscripts on a full range of topics related to African educational and human development issues in all disciplines. As an electronic journal, we welcome submissions that are of a time-sensitive nature.

To qualify for consideration, submissions must meet the scholarship standards within the appropriate disciplines. Articles should be submitted electronically, as HTML documents, or as Microsoft Word or Rich Text Format (RTF) files as an email attachment. Graphics should either be in Gif or JPEG format. All tables should be formatted using the Table tool. Articles, with about 100-word abstract, should be typed in Times New Roman 12 point font, with double-spacing. All submissions should include a cover page containing the title of the article, the name(s) of the author, any affiliations, email addresses and telephone numbers. Typescript should conform to the style set forth in the latest edition of the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Please use this checklist to ensure that guidelines are followed:

  1. Margins must be 1"

  2. Font Face must be Times or Times New Roman

  3. Font Size must be 12 point (except paper Title is 14 pt)

  4. Limit papers to 6 – 8 pages, single-spaced.

  5. References, graphics, tables all count toward total pages count

  6. Main paragraph heading in 12-point, All Caps. Sub-headings in 12-point title case (words are lower-case with only the first letter capitalized).


  8. Tables text to be in Arial 10pt, with title in 12pt Times Roman

  9. Do NOT include PAGE NUMBERS

  10. Do NOT include HEADERS or FOOTER

The Managing Editor may decline to consider a manuscript for several reasons, including inadequate evidence that the topic is substantially new and promising, an insufficient clear and detailed presentation, and a lack of adherence to the journal’s guidelines for manuscript preparation. The Managing Editor reserves the right to reject manuscripts that do not clearly address African educational and human development issues.


Once a manuscript has been accepted for consideration, it will be anonymously assigned to three reviewers with expertise in the area. The final decision for publication depends on at least two positive reviews. The journal will attempt to publish manuscripts not later than six months after submission.


Articles may be submitted as email attachments to


In situations where articles cannot be submitted electronically, hard copies, diskettes, or CD ROMs can be mailed to:

Dr. David Adewuyi, Managing Editor
The African Symposium

College of Education

Albany State University

504 College Drive

Albany, GA 31705


THE AFRICAN SYMPOSIUM, an on-line quarterly journal, seeks papers and reports based on research in the area of African education development. The following guidelines should be carefully considered by persons who submit papers for publication.

Format for your paper: Online APA Style Information

In using the APA format, pay attention to the following, among other items:


         Reference citations in text/document; One work by one author- Barbert (1976) acknowledged that...

         Font size

         Long quotations

         Short quotations

         Reference section, titles of documents, volumes, and page number citations

         Tables and figures

         Interviews or Personal Communication

Reference citations in text/document

One work by one author - Barbert (1978) found out that....

Groups as authors- e.g., associations, government agencies are spelled out in the first citation (and followed by year of publication) and abbreviated in subsequent sections.

Two or more works within the same parentheses; In general (Owusu & Paul, 1996, 1999) have argued about....

List two authors cited in the same parentheses in alphabetical order; (Panda, 1956; Quarm, 1978) have conducted ...

Newspaper article without author. In the document, use a short title, e.g. (Mali in a neat victory, 1996).

Quotations: Short

He argued that "The election was not held in the morning" (Abba, 2003, p. 7)..

Quotation: Long

Bola (1990) has argued, among other things that:

The best way to reach a compromise when there appears to be no way in the dispute is to give both parties

another change to make their case. As soon as they agree to this, work out a deal with each group separately at

different times and at different locations. In making the deal, ask for what each party wants in the case. Discuss

the implications of their demands with them. Then meet them again and see what can you do to find a solution to

the problem. (p.45)

Personal Communicaton/Interviews

Do not include personal interviews or communication in the reference section since "they do not provide recoverable data"

Simply include reference to the interview or communication in the text. Use the following format in the text of the paper:

(O. K. Bates, personal communication, March 23, 2003).

Reference Section

Arrange author names in alphabetical order.

Periodicals (Periodicals include documents such as journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters).
Pay attention to alphabetical order of names, titles of documents, volumes, and page number citations

Matambe, A. H. (2000). What I mean by pedagogy. Journal of Teaching, 6, 120-245.

Journal article paginated by issue or number

Nan, B. A. (2004). My concept of effective teachers. Journal of Pedagogy, 8(3), 33-67.

Daily Newspaper article

Amabia, K. B. (1995, July 15). Students begin technology classes in all area schools. The Daily Mail, pp. 3-4.

When there is no author for the newspaper article, use the following format:

Mali in a neat victory.(1996, June 5). Mali Express, p. 8.

Book Chapter

Casper, A. T.& Tom, A. P. (2003). Multiple intelligences: Another concept for effective teaching. In J. T. Ansah.(Ed.), Teaching for the next generation. Tatevill, Malcolm Press.


One author

Koda, P. K. (2003). Educational technology in the new curriculum. Lagos, Abba Press.

Two authors (Use same format for more than two authors).

Koda, P. K., & Manso, F. K. (1965). Curriculum framework for teacher training institutions in Africa. Cairo, Ahmadu Press.

Entry in an encyclopedia

Adamu, O. F. (1984). The concept of instruction. In International Encyclopedia of Education (Vol. 5 34, pp. 344-346). Bamako: Encyclopedia Africana.

No author or editor for the book

Accra encyclopedia of soccer (2nd ed.). (2004). Accra: Anowuo Press.

Book Review

Kola, O. K. (2004). The meaning of teaching.[Review of the book The moral aspect of teaching]. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(3), 89-90.

Electronic Resources

Toure, B. A. (2003). Teaching with technology in a modern school. Retrieved January 4, 2003, from

Levels of Headings


Level 3. Flush Left Your Text Begins from the Far Left, Italicized

Level 1. This Section of the Paper is Centered on the Page, Uppercase and Lowercase Characters Used in this Section

Level 2. This Section, Like Level 1 is Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Characters are used in the heading

Level 4. This section is indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. It appears to be part of the paragraph.

Use appropriate font for all texts, including title, headings, references, quotations, figure captions, and tables. Use double spaces throughout your work. Leave one-inch margin all around your work.

Editorial reviewers consider the timeliness of the topic of the paper and the general interest and priority given to the topic within a country or region. The composition should be of high quality with respect to organization, grammar, spelling and punctuation. Research design should be stated and authoritative sources should be referenced. Conclusions should be supported by findings.

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Last Revised:

Thursday, August 11, 2011

Web site contacts: Dr. Craig C. Brookins,