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Michael Dykstra, M.S., M.S., PhD

Michael Dykstra

Research Professor and LAELOM Director

PhD: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Post Doc: University of Florida

Phone: 919-513-6202
Fax: 919-513-6464

Email: Michael_Dykstra@ncsu.edu

1984 to present

Electron Microscopy Director, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

2006 - 2007

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology, Meredith College, Raleigh NC

October 1989 to 2005

Adjunct Research Associate in Biology, University of North Carolina at Wilmington


Electron Microscopy Laboratory Director and Assistant Research Biologist, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens


Visiting Lecturer, Department of Botany University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

February 1978-August 1978

Post-doctoral Associate, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Florida


Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida


Assistant Research Scientist, Department of Botany, University of Florida

Research Areas

Medical Mycology, Ultrastructural Pathology, Aeromycology

Current Research

Examination of the relationship between airhandler design in zoo exhibits, fungal spore loads in the air, and animal/human health in these exhibits.

Publications (Since 1996)

Dillberger, John E., Robert L. Peiffer, Michael J. Dykstra, Michael O'Mara, and Dipak K. Patel. 1996. The experimental antipsychotic agent 1192U90 HCl targets tapetum lucidum in canine eyes. Toxicologic Pathol. 24:595-601.

Dykstra, M.J., T. Faucette, K. Reininger, M. Loomis, and D. Zombeck. 1996. Fungi in aviary air: How do we assess their presence and what does it mean for birds and humans? 1996 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings (Denver, CO), pp. 510-514.

Eckhoff, G.A., P. Mann, E.T. Gaillard, M.J. Dykstra, and G.L. Swanson. 1998. naturally developing virus-induced lethal pneumonia in two guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cont. Top. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37:54-57.

Halenda, R.M., M.P. Nasisse, and M.J. Dykstra. 1998. The effect of alpha-chymotrypsin on the breaking strength and ultrastructural morphology of canine ciliary zonules. Amer. J. Vet.Res. 59:335-339.

Dykstra, M.J., M. Loomis, K. Reininger, D. Zombeck and T. Faucette. 1997. A comparison of sampling methods for airborne fungal spores during an outbreak of aspergillosis in the forest aviary of the North Carolina Zoological Park. J. Zoo Wildlife Med. 28:454-463.

Faucette, T.G., M.J. Dykstra, K. Reininger, D. Zombeck, H. Stout, and C. Porter. 1999. A three-year study of viable airborne fungi in the North Carolina Zoological Park R.J.R. Nabisco Rocky Coast alcid exhibit. J. Zoo Wildlife Med. 30:44-53.

Dykstra, M.J., N.J.H. Sharp, T. Olivry, A. Hillier, K.M. Murphy, L. Kaufman, G.A. Kunkle, G. Spodnick, and C. Pucheu-Haston. 1999. A description of cutaneous-subcutaneous pythiosis in fifteen dogs.. Medical Mycology. 37:427-433.

Colitz, C.M.H., D. Malarkey, M.J. Dykstra, M.C. McGahan, and M.G. Davidson. 2000. Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of lens capsular plaques in dogs with cataracts. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 61:139-143.

Maas, P.A.Y., S.J. Kleinschuster, M.J. Dykstra, R. Smolowitz, and J. Parent. 1999. Molecular characterization of QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown), a pathogen of Mercenaria mercenaria. J. Shellfish Res. 18:561-567.

Dykstra, M.J. and A.S. Kane. 2000. Pfiesteria piscicida, and ulcerative mycosis of Atlantic menhaden-Current status of understanding. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 12:18-25.

Kane, A.S., M.J. Dykstra, E.J. Noga, R. Reimschuessel, A. Baya, C. Driscoll, H.W. Paerl, and J. Landsberg. 2000. Etiologies, observations and reporting of estuarine finfish lesions. Marine Environmental Research 50:473-477..

Crosier, A.E., P.W. Farin, M.J. Dykstra, J.E. Alexander, and C.E. Farin. 2000. Ultrastructural morphometry of bovine compact morulae produced in vivo and in vitro. Biology of Reproduction 62: 1459-1465.

Crosier, A.E., P.W. Farin, M.J. Dykstra, J.E. Alexander, and C.E. Farin. 2000. Ultrastructural morphometry of bovine blastocysts produced in vivo or in vitro. Biology of Reproduction 64: 1375-1385.

Dykstra, M.J., K.M. Astrofsky, M.D. Schrenzel, J.G. Fox, R.A. Bullis, S. Farrington, L. Sigler, M.G. Rinaldi, and M.R. McGinnis. 2001. High mortality in a large-scale zebrafish colony (Brachydanio rerio Hamilton & Buchanan, 1822) associated with Lecythophora mutabilis (van Beyma) W. Gams & McGinnis. Comparative Medicine 51:361-368.

Dykstra, M.J., P.C. Mann, M.R. Elwell, and S.V. Ching. 2002. Suggested standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the preparation of electron microscopy samples for toxicology/pathology studies in a GLP environment. Toxicologic Pathology 30:1-9.

Levy, M.G., J.L. Gookin, M. Poore, A.J. Birkenheuer, M.J. Dykstra, and R.W. Litaker. 2003. Tritrichomonas foetus and not Pentatrichomonas hominis is the etiologic agent of feline trichomonal diarrhea. J. Parasitol. 89:99-104.

Pagan, I., D.L. Costa, J.K. McGee, J.H. Richards, M.J. Dykstra, and J.A. Dye. 2003. Metals mimic airway epithelial injury induced in vitro by exposure to Utah Valley ambient particulate matter extracts. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 66: 1087-1112.

Fan, Y., L. Zurek, M.J. Dykstra, and C. Schal.  2003.  Hydrocarbon synthesis by enzymatically dissociated oenocytes of the abdominal integument of the German cockroach, Blatella germanica.  Naturwissenschaften 90:121-126.

Mukha, D.V., A.G. Chumachenko, M.J. Dykstra, T. J. Kurti, and C. Schal.  2006.  Characterization of a new densovirus infecting the German cockroach, Blatella germanica.  J. Gen. Virol.  87:1567-1575.

Osorio, C., O. Fletcher, M.J. Dykstra, K. Post, and H.J. Barnes.  2007.  Comb candidiasis affecting roosters in a broiler breeder flock. Avian Dis. 51:618-622.

Martin, M.P., K.S. Pecelunas Bouck, J. Helm, M.J. Dykstra, D.P. Wages, and H.J. Barnes.  2007.  Dessiminated Aspergillus flavus infection in broiler breeder pullets.  Avian Dis.51:626-631.

Hild, S.A., J.R. Reel, M.J. Dykstra, P.C. Mann, and G.R. Marshall.  2007.  Acute adverse effects of the indenopyridine, CDB-4022, on the ultrastructure of Sertoli cells, spermatocytes and spermatids in rat testes:  Comparison to the known Sertoli cell toxicant, Di-n-pentylphthalate (DPP).  J. Androl. 28:621-629.

Levy, M.G., R.W. Litaker, R.J. Goldstein, M.J. Dykstra, M. W. Vandersea, and E. Noga.  2007.  Piscinoodinium, a fish-ectoparasitic dinoflagellate, is a member of the class Dinophyceae, subclass Gymnodiniphycidae:  Convergent Evolution with Amyloodinium.  J. Parasitol.  93:1006-1015.

Dykstra, M.J., and K. Reininger.  2007.  Aviary air handler design and its relationship to fungal spore loads in the air.  J. Zoo Wildlife

Wada, S., O. Kurata, K. Hatai, E.J. Noga, M.J. Dykstra, and J.S. Burke. 2009. Reovirus-like infection of cultured summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus. Fish Pathol. 44:151-153.

Jacquet, B.V., R. Salinas-Mondragon, H. Liang, B. Therit, J.D. Buie, M. Dykstra, K. Campbell, L.E. Ostrowski, S.L. Brody, and H.T. Ghashghaei. 2009. FoxJ1-dependent gene expression is required for differentiation of radial glia into ependymal cells and a subset of astrocytes in the postnatal brain. Development 136:4021-4031.

Dykstra, M.J. 2010. Why 4F:1G fixative works for me. Microscopy Today, March 2010: 50-53.

Stevenson, C.D., M.J. Dykstra, and T.C. Lanier.  2013.  Capillary pressure as related to water holding in polyacrylamide and chicken protein gels.  J. Food Sci.  78:C145-C151.


Dykstra, M.J. 1992. Biological electron microscopy: Theory, techniques and trouble shooting. Plenum Press, NY. 360 p.

Dykstra, M.J. 1993. A manual of applied techniques for biological electron microscopy. Plenum Press, NY. 257 p.

Dykstra, M.J. and L.E. Reuss. 2003. Biological electron microscopy: Theory, techniques and trouble shooting. 2nd Edition. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, NY.

Lab Personnel

Laboratory Assistant: Jeanette Shipley-Phillips


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