Pinus palustris Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Pinus No. 14. 1768.
Pinus australis Michx. f., Hist. Arbor. Am. Sept. 1: 64, pl. 6. 1810.
DERIVATION: Of Marshes.
OTHER COMMON NAMES: Georgia pine, southern pine, southern yellow pine, longstraw pine, swamp pine, heart pine, hill pine, pitch pine, hard pine.
*(From Little, 1979.)
Longleaf pine, one of the most important southern pines, exists now only in small fragments throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. Before the arrival of European settlers, extensive, pure stands could be found throughout the southeast. Now, only about 1% of the estimated original 24 million hectares (60 million acres) exist. Naval stores, grazing, particulary hog grazing, logging, and fire suppresion led to the drastic decline of this pine species. Sonderegger pine (Pinus × sondereggeri H.H. Chapm.) is a natural hybrid between longleaf pine and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) which occurs throughout the southeast.
Human uses: Formerly used for naval stores. Currently used for lumber, pulp, pinestraw mulch, poles, pilings, posts, and plywood.
Animal uses: Primary habitat for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Forage for cattle and deer. Formerly, hogs, which were allowed to roam freely through the forest, fed primarily on the starchy, grass stage seedlings, contributing to longleaf pine's decline. Pines seeds are eaten by birds, including bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura).
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