Pinus clausa Chapm. ex Vasey, Gard. Monthly and Hort. 18: 151. 1876. Cat. For. Trees U.S. 30. 1876; nom. nud.
Pinus inops var. clausa Chapm. ex Engelm., Bt. Gaz. 2: 125. 1877.
Pinus clausa (Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg., U.S. Census, 10th, 1880, v. 9 (Rep. For. North Am.): 199. 1884.
Pinus clausa var. immuginata D.B. Ward, Castanea 28:4. 1963.
DERIVATION: Closed, some cones remaining closed a few years before releasing the seeds.
OTHER COMMON NAMES: Ocala sand pine, Choctawhatchee sand pine, scrub pine, spruce pine.
*(From Little, 1979.)
Sand pine is found almost exclusively in Florida. Two geographic races are recognized, the Ocala race and the Choctawhatchee race. The Ocala race, P. clausa var. clausa, occurs from northeastern to southern Florida. This race is distinguished from the other variety by its serotinous cones, which either remain closed for many years, or open after high-intensity fires. This variety grows in dense, even-aged stands. The best development is in the "Big Scrub" in north-central Florida. The Choctawhatchee race, P. clausa var. immuginata, occurs in northwest Florida and extreme southeastern Alabama. This variety has non-serotinous cones.
Human uses: Pulpwood, construction lumber, fuelwood, Christmas trees.
Animal uses: Seeds eaten by wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura).
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