Mini-Encyclopedia of Papermaking Wet-End
Part Two: Definitions and Concepts
Freeness is a measure of how quickly water is able to drain from a fiber furnish sample. In many cases there is a correlation between freeness values and either (a) a target level of refining of pulp, or (b) the ease of drainage of white water from the wet web, especially in the early sections of a Fourdrinier former. Standard tests of freeness are based on gravity dewatering through a screen. The devices are designed so that an operator can judge the speed of dewatering by observing the volume of liquid collected in a graduated cylinder. Freeness tends to be decreased by refining and by increases in the level of fines in the furnish. Freeness can be increased by use of drainage aids, removal of fines, or enzymatic treatments to convert mucilaginous materials into sugars.
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