Opportunities in Wet-End Chemistry
Education in the Field of Wet-End Chemistry
Educational opportunities
Semester courses   Click on "Semeter courses" (or use the curser to move down to the first subject area on the screen below) if you or someone you know wants to attend a university and has an interest in pulp and paper. Have them consider our program. Our program offers degrees at the B.S., Masters, and Ph.D. levels.
Short courses   Click on "Short courses" if you need a two-day to two-week short course in some aspect of pulp and paper manufacture. This is a great option for companies that need to get some newer employees up to speed, to make them aware of issues, and to give them some technical vocabulary.
Distance education  

Click on "Distance education" if you want the full benefits of a graduate (Masters degree level) education, but circumstances make it inconvenient for you to attend courses on campus.

Brief promotional video for FB 522, "Chemical Principles for the Papermaking Process Engineer" (Each Fall semester) https://youtu.be/uSwTcCWJOp0

Brief promotional video for FB 595, "Pulp & Paper Technology," (Each fall semester) https://youtu.be/TFkuJ_NdAso

Biltmore Hall
Biltmore Hall from outside

Undergraduate classroom for Pulp & Paper Science

The "Brickyard" of NC State

Brightness, opacity
Physical testing laboratory for paper properties

Educational programs at NC State University and elsewhere may help you to meet a variety of personal or corporate goals related to papermaking chemistry:

Disclaimer: Please note that the information provided here is not official. The purpose is to give a general description. This document should not be considered as a source of implied agreements or policies. Official information is available from the Graduate School, and from the Department of Wood and Paper Science.

In addition to the programs at NC State University, please also consider the many fine programs offered by other schools. We have included many colleges and universities offering programs in papermaking chemistry in our list of website links. (If your college is not on the list and it should be, please let us know immediately and we will add it!)

Semester Courses: Atrium of Biltmore Hall Classroom

The Department of Wood & Paper Science at North Carolina State University offers a full program of semester courses at the undergraduate, Masters Degree, and Ph.D. Degree levels. The Pulp and Paper program has achieved a world class reputation in the areas of wood chemistry, pulping, bleaching, processing of non-woody plant fibers, and recycling technology. Paper industry CEO's have rated our program as No. 1 in the US. Wet-end chemistry, our most recently added area of focus, will provide additional strength in producing well balanced professionals to meet the needs of industry.

A large proportion of students in the pulp and paper program are supported by scholarship grants from the Pulp and Paper Foundation. When you get to the home page for "paper and forestry foundations," click on the link to pulp and paper. Contributors to the Foundation include many leading paper companies, allied industry contributors, and individual contributors or groups.

Undergraduates choose between a "Scientific" or an "Engineering" concentration. A single major usually requires four years (eight semesters) of study. During this time the student will have participated in pilot paper machine runs, lab experiments, field trips, and a wide variety of courses. The typical student also will have spent at least one summer working for a paper company or a supplier to the paper industry. With experiences like these our students have achieved a reputation as practical problem-solvers. Essentially all our B.S. graduates find full-time employments within the pulp and paper industry, a many of them have achieved positions of leadership in their companies.

The usual length of study for a B.S. degree is four years, but many of our students stay longer. There are several explanations for this. First, it has become popular for students to seek dual degrees, graduating with a Bachelor of Science in Engineering or Chemistry, in addition to their degree in Wood and Paper Science. Typically five years of study are needed in order to fulfill the requirements of a dual degree. In addition, industrial co-op programs are becoming increasingly popular. Companies employ co-op students for the same reasons that they employ students during the summer. The longer term of temporary employment of a co-op student is seen as an advantage in achieving more substantial project results, developing closer ties with the University, and in spreading the benefits around to seasons other than summer. Recently the department has approved a series orf changes in course offerings in order to make it easier for students to schedule around their co-op semester absences.

Starting with the class that enters in the program in the fall of 2000, the undergraduate program will include a rigorous junior-year course in wet-end chemisty. Our prime goal for the new course reflects our departmental philosophy - getting students ready to solve real-life problems. The undergraduate course will emphasize an understanding of aqueous chemistry and polyelectrolytes. Case studies will give students an opportunity to put these principles into practice. The undergraduate course also will have a strong laboratory component, familiarizing the students with tools and methods that can be used to understand and optimize papermachine additive programs.

The following table lists the courses taken by a typical undergraduate student as of 2000-2001 (Chemical Engineering option). In addition to what is shown, future students can expect (a) a shift towards introduction of wood and paper science courses earlier in a student's program, (b) the junior year course in wet-end and polymer chemistry, as mentioned above, (c) a course in management and economics related to the pulp and paper industry, and (d) a senior-year course in paper physics and product design. For more detailed information, please contact Dr. Medwick Byrd , who can be reached at (919) 515-5790.

Freshman Year
Fall CH 101 General Chemistry I
  CH 102 General Chemistry I Lab
  E 115 Introduction to Computing Environments
  EC 205 Fundamentals of Economics
  ENG 111 Composition and Rhetoric

MA 141 Analytical Geometry and Calculus I

  PE 10X Health and Physical Fitness
  WPS 101 Introduction to Wood and Paper Science
Spring CH 201 General Chemistry II
  CH 202 General Chemistry II Lab
  ENG 112 Composition and Reading
  MA 241 Analytical Geometry and Calculus II
  PY 205 Physics for Engineers and Scientists I
  WPS 102 Introduction to Pulp and Paper Technology
Sophomore Year
Fall CH 221 Organic Chemistry I
  CHE 205 Chemical Process Principles
  MA 242 Analytical Geometry and Calculus III
  WPS 212 Paper Properties
  Physical Education Elective
Spring CH 223 Organic Chemistry II
  CHE 225 Chemical Process Systems
  MA 341 Applied Differential Equations I
  PY 208 Physics for Engineers and Scientists II
  WPS 371 Pulping Process Analysis
Summer Session
  Pulp and Paper Internship
Junior Year
Fall CHE 311 Transport Processes I
  CHE 315 Thermodynamics I
  ENG 331 Communication for Engineers and Technologists
  WPS 322 Papermaking Wet-End Chemistry (Lab starts Fall 2002)
3 + 1
  CH 315 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Spring CHE 312 Transport Processes II
  Option Elective CHE 316
  WPS 332 Wood and Pulping Chemistry
  WPS 360 Pulp and Paper Unit Proc. II
  ENG 331 Communication for Engineers and Technologists
Senior Year
Fall WPS 415 Senior Research Project
  WPS 475 Process Control
  H/SS/TECH/SOC Elective
  H/SS History/Literature Elective
Spring WPS 416 Process Design and Analysis
  WPS 417 Process Design and Analysis lab
  WPS 465 Paper Physics and Products Design
  WPS 472 Paper Process Analysis
  H/SS PHI/REL/Visual Perf. Arts Elective
  H/SS Adv. Social Science Elective
Additional Courses Needed for a Dual Degree (WPS, CHE)
  CHE 330 Chemical Engineering Lab I
  CHE 446 Design and Analysis of Chemical Reactors
  CHE 450 Chemical Engineering Design I
  ECE 331 Chemical Engineering Lab II
  MAT 201 Structure and Properties of Engineering Materials



Refined fibers

Pilot paper machine
Pilot paper machine for student research, contracts, & education

Pulmac fiber classifier
Pulmac fiber analysis system

streaming potential
Lab ZetaData streaming potential

Most M.S. or doctoral students receive financial aid as teaching or research assistanceships. Support is contingent on incoming qualifications and satisfactory performance each semester. Financial assistanceships are available on a competitive basis for well qualified students. In addition, free tuition and health insurance may be provided.

Information about qualifying for, applying to, and enrolling in the graduate education program can be obtained from the Graduate School's site. The following background information is given here for convenience, only, and one needs to go to the Graduate School site to get the most recent information. In general, requirements that students should become aware of include the following:

1. An undergraduate degree in Paper Science, Engineering, or Sciences (e.g. Chemistry, Physics, Biology)
2. A minimum GPA of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale
3. Completion of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
4. Three letters of recommendation
5. For international applicants: A satisfactory certificate of financial responsibility and a TOEFL score of at least 550.

To appy to our program contact the Department of Wood and Paper Science for an application package. You also can apply on line at http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/grad/. A $55 application fee is required for processing. Although students are admitted for the fall or spring semester, the department encourages fall admissions. Application deadlines for US students are June 25 (for Fall) and Nov. 25 (for Spring semester). Application deadlines for foreign students are April 1 (for Fall) and August 1 (for Spring semester).

Masters of Wood and Paper Science

Students having a keen interest in the technology are strongly encouraged to continue their education through the Masters and Ph.D. levels. A 1999 study showed that an MS student's starting salary in our industry started at $52,000, whereas a Ph.D. starting salary started at $66,000. A graduate degree in the Wood and Paper Sciences will result in a significant salary increase over a B.S. that does not disappear over time.

Candidates for the non-thesis Master of Wood and Paper Science degree are required to complete 30 hours of study. The program is comprised of core courses, elective courses, and a substantial number of hours devoted to a special project. During the first year of study there is a heavy emphasis on completion of course work, and it will be common for students to complete the following four core courses during that year:

Course or Project
Paper Physics
Wet-End & Colloidal Chemistry
Wood, Pulping, and Bleaching
Unit Operations


Please note that these are the same four masters-level courses that will be offered each year as part of our DISTANCE LEARNING program. Further information about distance education is also available at the Departmental Website.

The Masters of Wood and Paper Science also includes the following requirements:

Course or Project
  WPS 691 Graduate Seminar
  Electives (four)
  Special project (not necessarily a lab project)


The following is a partial list of graduate-level courses that are offered as electives by the Department of Wood and Paper Science. Courses typically are offered on alternate years:

Course or Project
  WPS 521 Chemistry of Wood Polysaccharides
  WPS 522 Chemistry of Lignin and Extractives
  WPS 525 Pollution Abatement in Forest Product Industries
  WPS 533 Advanced Wood Anatomy
  WPS 560 Advanced Pulp and Paper Process Analysis
  WPS 591 Wood and Paper Science problems
  WPS 599 Methods of Research in Wood & Paper Science
  WPS 625 Wastewater Treatment in the Paper Industry
  WPS 693 Advanced Wood and Paper Science Problems
  WPS 699 Problems and Research
* = credits arranged on an individual basis


Master of Science

Candidates for the Master of Science Degree must fulfill all of the requirements listed above (i.e. for the Masters of Wood and Paper Science) and in addition they must complete an original project of thesis research. The thesis work must be defended at a final oral examination. The credit hour requirements (total = 30 or greater) are as follows:

Core courses: 12 hours
Minor electives: 9 hours
Other electives: 1 to 7 hours
Research: 0 to 6 hours
Seminar: 2 hours

A limited number of research assistantships are available from the department. They are intended for the first year of study. Later years are typically funded by specific project grants, or, in a few cases, by a student's employer.

Incoming graduate students are encouraged to act promptly to find out which, if any, of the currently funded research projects in the department is the best fit to their own interests. This process can begin even before one has set foot on campus. Rather it can be helpful to send a resume and to get in touch with one or more professors even before you arrive. Incoming or uncommitted graduate students with a potential interest in wet-end chemistry are urged to contact Martin Hubbe at m_hubbe@ncsu.edu or to call (919) 513-3022.

Each student is assigned an Advisor soon after their arrival. Then as soon as practical, but no later than one year after beginning studies, the entering graduate student must work with the Advisor to select a Graduate Committee. The student and the Committee work together to complete a plan of study, to plan the outlines of a research project, and to make sure that the student remains on a course that will lead to a degree in a timely manner. The written thesis has to be completed, and then there is an oral defense of the thesis.

Doctor of Philosophy

Candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy have certain requirements that are not included in the M.S. degree program. A certain number of courses are required, but the emphasis is on the research project. A Ph.D. program typically requires 4 years of study. Students must take a minimum of 72 credit hours as follows:

Core courses: 12 hours
Minor electives: 9 hours
Seminar: 2 hours
Research and electives: 49 hours

It has been the practice of the department to require incoming Ph.D. students to pass qualifying examinations in such areas as wood, pulping, and bleaching, (b) pulping and papermaking, (c) paper properties, and (d) unit operations in pulp and paper manufacture. Study of a foreign language is optional.

The Ph.D. candidate works with the Advisor to form a graduate committee. As in the case of the M.S. degree candidate, the role of the Advisor and Committee is to work with the student in formulating the outlines of a project and a course of study.

The next milestone for the Ph.D. degree candidate is a pair of Preliminary Oral Examinations. The first proposition is a detailed research plan related to original Ph.D. research by the student. It must be submitted within 12 months of beginning graduate studies. After informal review by the student's Graduate Committee, the proposition is presented for a formal oral examination. The second proposition is a literature review on a topic approved by the committee, but not related to the student's area of research.

A written Ph.D. thesis consists of either (a) a single, contiguous work, or (b) an introductory report with published articles attached.

Once the written thesis is complete, the student works with the Committee to schedule a Final Oral Examination. This examination will include a 30-minute seminar followed by a questions related to the thesis, coursework, and topics related to the field of study.

Short Courses Short courses

NCSU short course
Short courses at NC State
Med Byrd and pilot PM
Demonstration of pilot paper machine operations

NCSU's Department of Wood and Paper Science has a strong tradition of offering industrial short-courses. We believe that our courses are among the best you can find, especially in the following areas:

- Quality of technical content
- Hands-on labs and pilot plant experiences
- Variety and depth of subject areas

Special workshop for high school teachers
Our short-course offerings usually are announced only a couple of months in advance of the event. We rely on direct mail announcements to attract potential students. So, if you think you might be interested, we recommend that you get your name onto our mailing lists. Please send us an E-Mail if you wish to be put on a list to be informed of upcoming courses.

"Introduction to Pulp and Paper: Hands-On Workshop" was conducted during March 13-17, 2000, May 8-12, 2000, and October 16-20, 2000. Click here for information about similar courses in the future, contact Richard Venditti at (919) 515-6185.

Here are titles and a few details about short courses that have been offered at N. C. State U. in the past, and which are likely to be presented again on a regular basis:

Hands-On Course?
Introduction to Pulp and Paper - Hands-On Workshop
5 days

Introduction to Pulp & Paper - Week 1: Pulping & Recovery

5 days (first week)
Introduction to Pulp & Paper - Week 2: Papermaking
5 days (second week)
Wet-End Chemistry Theory & Practice
3 days
Papermaking Laboratory
5 days


Short-Course Opportunities at Your Worksite

In addition to our on-site courses, various faculty members at NC State are eager to prepare tailor-made off-site courses to meet various needs of companies. These courses are run independently by the faculty members acting in the role of independent consultants. The following list shows some recent off-site industrial short-course presentation offerings by Marty Hubbe in the area of wet-end chemistry. I would be happy to modify any of these courses to meet your particular needs.

Taipei short course
July 23-27, 2001 short course in Taipei
Hubbe in Tokyo
July 16, 2001 Seminar sponsored by Japan TAPPI in Tokyo

PM deposits & origins
Aug. 2-3, 2000 short-course in New York

Acidic and Alkaline Sizing of Paper Papers Massaschusetts Oct. 21, 2004
Retention Aids: What, Why, and How Internet virtual seminar April and May 2004
The Invention of Paper - Its Impact on Culture and on our Lives North Carolina April 25, 2004
Strength Additives for Paper Manufacture" and "Retention Aid Strategies for Paper Manufacture" China March 17, 22, 26, 2004
Using the Paper Mill as a 'Reactor' for Multi-layer Surface Treatment of Fibers Tennessee March 11, 2003
Chemicals, Enzyme Applications, and Fractionation Technology Trends in Paper Manufacture Korea July 2002
Wet-End Chemistry II Short Course Taiwan July 23-27, 2001
Advances in Wet-End Chemistry Tokyo July 16, 2001
Analytical Chemistry Related to Papermaking New York August 2-3, 2000
Wet-End Chemistry Short Course Taiwan May 2-4, 2000
Colloidal Principles of Paper Chemical Formulation Georgia Feb. 10-11, 2000
Paper Machine Wet-End Chemistry of Starch Michigan July 19, 1999
Hardboard Process Chemistry North Carolina December 16-17, 1999
Wet-End Chemistry Related to ASA Sizing Pennsylvania May 10-11, 1999
Chemistry of Wet-Lay NonWovens Processing North Carolina April 21, 1999

TAPPI Short Course in Wet-End Chemistry

TAPPI short course
May 7-9, 2001 short course (now held annually); This was the cover slide for a session held in Kalamazoo, Michigan.
ATCP Mexico course
Oct. 25-27, 2000 short course, Mexico City: Acociacion Mexicana de Tecnicos de las Industrias de la Celulosa y del Papel

TAPPI's 3-day short course "Introduction to Wet-End Chemistry" has grown in popularity over the years; recently we have been presenting the course once a year. We change the location each time in order to suit the preferences of potential participants from different areas. The "faculty" for the course offer a lot of depth and breadth of experience:

Faculty Member Main Subject Area Affliation
Martin Hubbe Course Director NCSU
Przem Prszynski Deposit control, pitch Nalco
Bob Gill, Tom Haller Fillers, optical properties Specialty Minerals
Darren Swales Dry strength, retention aids Vulcan
Gavin Spence Wet strength, foam control Consultant
Kurt Moberg, Jeff Keiser Strength, microparticles Penford Products
Joel Garbon Sizing with rosin, ASA, & AKD Hercules
Carmen Spara Dyes & fluorescent whiteners Lanxess

The course is designed to help papermakers and suppliers understand wet-end chemistry principles and concepts and to provide participants with a foundation upon which to develop effective wet end chemistry trouble-shooting and optimization programs for their companies. The course includes a series of focused case studies, short subject matter presentations, and question and answer periods.

Offerings of the TAPPI short-course "Introduction to Wet-End Chemistry" were held or are scheduled for the following dates:

For more information, contact TAPPI at 1-800-332-8686 (US), 1-800-446-9431 (Canada), or 1-770-446-1400, or visit their website at www.tappi.org .


Distance Education distance education

digital projector
Digital projector

Are you interested in getting a Master's Degree in Wood and Paper Science? Or do you just want to bone up on specific subjects related to the field? Either of these goals could be a reason to go to a university. But is this what you want to do now? Is on-campus attendance inconvenient for your at this time?

Now there's another option. In the Fall 1999 the Department of Forest Biomaterials inaugurated its distance education program of graduate studies.

NCSU logo
School's logo

Chalk filler
We study fillers...
Fiber fines
We study fines...

Colloidal silica
We study colloids...

Registration information can be found at the website for NC State University's "Delta" program. When you get to the site, click on "Wood and Paper Science." Look for FB 527 (Wet End and Colloidal Chemistry) and FB522 ("Chemical Principles for the Papermaking Process Engineering") on the list, but be careful, since the list is not completely alphabetical; there are some textiles courses attached at the end of the list. Registration for Fall closes approximately in the third week of August, plus two weeks of "late registration." Registration of the Spring semester closes near the beginning of January with a late registration deadline somewhere around mid-January. Here's how it works:

1. The main target audience for the distance education program includes people with (a) a college or post-graduate education, (b) typically one to ten years of industrial experience, and (c) currently employed in the pulp and paper industry, including providers of materials and services to the industry. The program is open to individuals professionally employed who have a minimum or one year of relevant industry experience. It is designed to meet both personal career objectives and industry needs.

2. There is no need to declare right away whether you are interested in obtaining a degree. In fact, we expect that the majority of participants may select just one or two of the courses that most directly affect their current career needs. On the other hand, one can later decide to pursue the degree and apply the credits.

3. The degree of Master of Wood and Paper Science, when obtained through the distance education program, has the same requirements as if the student were present on campus. A total of 30 credit hours are required. As shown in the following table, there are four required "core" courses that every masters degree candidate must take. Electives may be selected from either (a) other distance courses offered through NCSU or (b) pre-approved courses offered through other institutions. In addition, each student must complete a special project under the guidance of a faculty advisor. These projects will emphasize the analysis, design, and planning or a technical project, with an emphasis on scientific fundamentals. The nature of the project will be determined in consultation with the student's employer, the student, and the faculty advisor.

Credit Hours
Paper Physics (Fall semester)
Wood Chemistry, Pulping, & Bleaching (Spring)
Unit Operations and Control (Spring)
Seminar *
Special Project
* Distance-education students need not attend, but they must submit presentations in a suitable format and answer any questions (using E-Mail, phone, etc.)

4. The "core" courses (numbers 1-4 in the list above) will be conducted in parallel with the regularly scheduled semester courses. Distance-education students will be able to view the lectures on video cassettes that they will recieve each week. In most cases the bulk of the communication and homework exchanges will be by E-Mail. Someone in the student's place of business will be appointed to serve as proctor for any closed-book exams.

5. Please note that the course on "Wet-End and Colloid Chemistry" has it own web site (see highlighted link in the table above). The site gives a detailed course description, a syllabus, a calendar (current for Fall 1999), reading lists, and a variety of other features. Registered students will also recieve the video cassettes, hard-copy notes, and computerized authorization to access Electronic Reserves in NC State's library.

6. To broaden the student's educational exposure, a minor consisting of 3 courses is required for this degree. This is an opportunity for students to take classes in an additional area that is of interest to the student. Typical minors can be in Business, Environmental Science, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Statistics and Quality Control, Computer Science, or Industrial Engineering (among others).

7. Elective courses may be selected from a variety of other distance courses offered by NC State University via video, satellite, and over the Internet. NC State's distance course offerings are quickly growing, since the system has made a commitment to distance-based delivery of education.

For answers to specific questions about the distance education program at NC State you are encouraged to contact Dr. Martin Hubbe at (919) 515-3022 or e-mail him at hubbe@ncsu.edu. Also, you can write to the department at Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Box 8005, Raleigh, NC 27695-8005.

To sign up for a distance-education course, please contact Melissa Williford, the ADMINISTRATOR OF THE DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAM. She also can be reached at (919) 515-7377, or you can visit her website at http://distance.ncsu.edu. Students can also apply online for admission to the graduate degree program at http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/grad/ .

Information on this site is provided as a public service by Dr. Marty Hubbe of the Department of Wood and Paper Science at North Carolina State University. While the information is intended to be accurate, users of the information must accept full risk. When errors in the contents of this site are found, please send a message to the website caretaker by using the e-mail link provided below (final item):

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