Opportunities in Wet-End Chemistry
Fun stuff
You can make paper by hand.   Click on "Hand-made paper LINKS" to find links to several sites that describe instructions, workshops, history, and products of traditional, artistic, and educational hand-making of paper.
Jokes   Click on "Jokes" if you haven't heard the one about the out-of-fuel airplane with the doctor, the lawyer, and the papermaking chemicals vendor.
Games and activities   Click on "Games and activities" for miscellaneous things that you can try out of curiosity, for demonstrations, or to have fun with kids of all ages.

You can make paper by hand! You can make paper by hand.

There are three parts to this section on making paper by hand:
1. Instructions for building and using a kit the works great for informal sheet-making demonstrations with kids (see below).
2. A "VIRTUAL TOUR" of the site-master's private collection of hand-made paper and paper art.
3. Links to other sites related to making paper by hand.

Part 1. LINK to instructions for hand-made papermaking

How to assemble a papermaking kit Click this button for instructions on how to make and use a hand-made paper kit that works great for informal sheet-making demonstrations with kids.

Here's a quote to inspire hand papermakers:

"The person who makes a piece of notepaper to the best of his ability, conscientiously, concentrating all his forces on perfecting it, is giving praise to God." - 'Abdu'l-Baha'i, see page Chapter 5, section headed "Service," in Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by J. E. Esslemont, 1923.

Dard Hunter's book
Book by Dard Hunter, the pre-eminant hand papermaker and scholar

Hand papermaking kit
Example of a sheet-mold for "dipping" sheets of paper from a retangular container
Handmade paper samples
A collection of various handmade papers by members of Friends of Dard Hunter



Here's a preview of some of what you'll see if you click on the link above.

Marbled paper by I. Wang "Tree-free" paper handmade in India for World Paper Castle Papers product Sally Rose paper art Mulberry handmade paper from Thailand Marbled paper by I. Wang

Part 3. LINKS to sites related to hand-making of paper
Here are some cool sites.

The Robert C. Williams American Museum of Papermaking at the Instititute of Paper Science and Technology at Georgia Tech. maintains a wonderful website. It gives a virtual tour of their museum and a wealth of other information, all presented in a delightful way.

The Friends of Dard Hunter is an international organization of people interested in hand-made paper, traditional printing, and related arts.

The Gomez Mill House was the home of the world's most famous hand-made papermaker during the years 1913 to 1919. Dard Hunter built a little water-powered mill on the adjacent creek to power a refiner for hand-made papermaking. The Gomez Mill house is now run as a museum to celebrate the lives of several different sets of historically important occupants. You can take a virtual tour by clicking on the following URL:

The International Association of Hand Papermakers and Paper Artists (IAPMA) is an international organization with over 400 members in over 40 countries. They have a newsletter.

Brian Queen of Castle Paper and Press has embarked on a noble and much-needed project, a book entitled "Papermaking, Tools of the Trade." Those who have experience with hand-making of paper are urged to visit his site. As described in the site, there are many ways that some of us may be able to help out with this very worthwhile project.

Twinrocker Handmade Paper, located in Bookston, Indiana, produces specialty papers, workshops, and supplies. Their site also describes the process. They have created the papers to go into limited-edition books.

Denise Fleming has written some very helpful instructions for handmade papermaking and binding of books.

David Kimball provides a source of all kinds of supplies, including the equipment needed for setting up a hand papermaking studio.

Tom Leech has a great site to promote efforts to research, revitalize, and recycle on behalf of traditional Tibetan papermaking practices.

NepalArt of Raleigh, NC imports handmade artistic paper (including paper made from the lokta shrub, and including flower pettals) and then converts it into various bound and artistic products.

Cottage Paper Craft of Nepal offers a line of handmade paper craft items and other products.

Tajpapers is a large supplier of handmade papers, based in India.

While in Raleigh, NC you also can visit Dechen Collections, a gift store that features hand-crafted paper art, paper hangings, etc.

Ed Landry has a new site describing the work of Village Handcrafters in the Phillipines, who cook scrap rope without chemicals, beat the pulp with home-made hollanders, and makde paper by hand.

Oblation Papers and Press specializes in the production of cotton-based handmade paper with floral inclusions. They are located in Portland, OR (516 NW 12th Ave, 97209).

Carol Cole produces fine 3-D art objects from handmade paper.

Credit goes out to Akua Lezli Hope for a great site the helped me to find several of the other sites that follow. Lots of links.

Dieu Donne, Inc. is a not-for-profit group that maintains a papermaking studeo in the Soho district of New York City. They've been doing this since 1976.

Hand Papermaking, Inc. publishes a magazine by the same name. Their site provides long lists of professional hand papermakers and related information. Perhaps the best feature of the site is a set of extensive instructions for beginners.

Gail Stiffe's website has a nice set of instructions for making art handsheets from recycled wastepaper.

Heres where to order your copy of "Teaching Hand Papermaking, A Classroom Guide," by Gloria Zmolek Smith. As noted by Akua Lezli Hope, this is a "wonderful, thorough, inspiring book." I've seen it and I agree.

The Prairie Paper Project gives an introduction to making paper our of straw. Don't laugh. Straw is a major component of machine-made paper in such places as India.

The Paper Shed, located in the UK, is a source of papermaking supplies, molds, kits, and pulps.

Jane Ingram Allen presents workshops on the forming 3D paper objects by forming and pressing. Her site describes her work as a sculptor of paper hangings that include hand-made paper.

Studio Beth presents pictures of paper sheets made with flowers.

The Paperwright, owned by Britt Quinlan, is a Canadian source of pulps, papermaking equipment, and a surprisingly broad selection of chemicals the can be used in hand-made papermaking.

Eliza at Sacredspiral gives links to a number of excellent websites related to handmade paper, some of which follow this item.

Redstick's Rubber Stamp and Paper Arts has a site with a great set of instructions for hand-making of art paper.
http://www.intersurf.com/~redstic/Home.htm http://www.intersurf.com/~redstic/Home.htm

The University of Minnesota has a nice site showing the methods and products of hand papermaking by kids.

Helmut Becker is an emeritus professor at the University of Western Ontario. His thing is to create handmade paper from linen and flax.

F. B. Fogg uses artistic handmade paper and paper-mache as the basis for creating paper clocks and lampshades.

Mel Kavin restores and binds antique books.

Jack Thompson of Thompson Conservation Lab employs flax in the manufacture of handmade paper. He is interested in the converving of medieval books. He is located in Portland, Oregon.

There are many folks who choose to make or buy paper composed of hemp fibers and other non-tree fiber sources. The motivation is to get away from our dependence on trees and reduce the pressure on threatened forestland in many parts of the world. The Evanescent Press in California makes decorative paper from hemp and a variety of other natural fibers. You can learn more from a site entitled "The Church of the Living Tree." The same site also has links to environmental organizations.

Supral Exports supplies handmade paper products from India. Items include diaries, planners, and paper bags.

An organization called TreeRemoval.com has a page explaining how paper can be made from trees. They include a link to hand-making of paper.

Here's a list of some highly worthwhile books related to handmade paper, etc.:

Hunter, D., Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, Dover, New York, 1974 (originally published in 1943 and 1947).

Gault, R., Paper Clay, Univ. Penn. Press, Philadelphia, 1998.

Jokes! (If you know a good one, please send it; we need it!) Jokes

Q: How many paper machine operators does it take to screw in a light-bulb?
A: Usually at least three.
Q: Why?
A: The day-shift operator first screws in the light bulb. The evening shift operator repeats the process so that the tightness of the bulb in the socket will be the way "they like to run." And so on for the graveyard shift.

A single-engine plane was carrying a pilot, a doctor, a lawyer, and a vendor of papermaking chemicals. The pilot announced that the plane did not have enough fuel to make it to the airport. "Watch me," he said, "so that you will know how to put on your parachute and jump out of the plane." With that, the pilot jumped out of the plane and floated down to safety. The passengers soon discovered that there were only two remaining parachutes. The doctor said, "Certainly I should be one of the two to get a parachute. Just consider the number of lives that I save every year." The lawyer said, "In this particular case it is even more important that I be a survivor, because someone has to be able to bring a lawsuit against the air service for being so negligent as to run out of fuel. As a result of my work I will be preventing hundreds of accidents just like this one." The wet-end chemical vendor said "Relax, there's no need for any of us to jump. I spend half my life in planes, so I'm sure that I can fly this thing. Also, I just put a 4-ounce sample in the fuel tank and I can promise you that the efficiency of this plane has increased by a factor of two and we will land with fuel to spare."

Just by coincidence there was another single-engined plane carrying a pilot and three passengers. Only this time the pilot was accompanied by a brain surgeon, a rocket scientist, and a professor of papermaking technology. The plane was carrying plenty of fuel. But the pilot announced that there was a total system failure and that the plane would crash in ten minutes. She demonstrated how to put on a parachute and how to jump from the plane. The passengers then discovered that there were two remaining parachutes. The brain surgeon said "My skills are so badly needed by society that certainly I should be allowed to survive." The rocket scientist said "The future of mankind depends on the progress of my research; we are on the verge of finding a way to transport people to a planet that will become a new home for the human race, and we must finish our work before we have worn out the planet Earth." The professor of papermaking chemistry thanked the other two for their great contributions to mankind. "But, he said, I have a plan based on the research findings of my own studies. I will jump first with both parachutes and I will open both of them. When you two jump, you will be retained on the tops of the two open chutes."

A wet-end starch vendor noticed that a particular paper machine superintendent liked to nap in his office. When asked, the machine superintendent pointed out that he was busy watching the video monitor. He was able to clearly see the monitor from the couch in the office. "How did you manage to get a couch in your office, asked the starch vendor? Until today the only 'couch' I had seen in a paper mill was pronounced 'cooch,' and it was a vacuum roll at the end of the forming section on a paper machine." Pretty soon everyone in the mill had heard the story. The next morning the mill manager said, "From now on I want you to get off the couch in your office and pay attention to what is happening at the couch." The starch vendor raised his hand. "Please don't be critical of your machine superintendent. The reason that he doesn't have to come out of his office to check the solids at the couch is that you have been getting such fantastic drainage and process efficiency with the new cationic potato starch. Besides, this mill has helped my company to select a new brand name for this product. It will be called 'Couch Potato'."

Activities! Things to try! Games and activities

Here's a foam-killing demonstration that you can do in your kitchen. All the ingredients are perfectly safe!

Part One

1. Take two matching bottles with lids. Fill each one-tenth full with water.

2. Add two drops of liquid dishwashing soap to each (the kind you use in the sink).

3. Add a tablespoon of milk to one of them.

4. (IMPORTANT) Screw on the lids.

5. Shake and observe what happens.

Part Two

1. At least one of the bottles from Part One should contain foam. Scoop some of it into an ice-cream dish.

2. Splash some isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) on top.

3. Watch the bubbles pop!

Information on this site is provided as a public service by Dr. Marty Hubbe of the Department of Wood and Paper Science at North Carolina State University. While the information is intended to be accurate, users of the information must accept full risk. When errors in the contents of this site are found, please send a message to the website caretaker by using the e-mail link provided below (final item):

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