Opportunities in Wet-End Chemistry
Web Links to Papermaking Chemistry Resources and Information
Schools Companies

Lots of groups are involved in the field of wet-end chemistry. I hope that the following sets of links are helpful.

Please let me know right away if I have omitted an important website - you're own, for instance. Send the URL address by e-mail.

Organizations You can make paper!

Links to Schools and Universities that Have Programs in Wet-End Chemistry: Schools

Abo Akademi University is in Turku, Finland. Their "Process Chemistry Group" is interested in papermaking chemistry, white water composition, and related subjects. See also their page related to capabilities of a pulp and paper lab.

Auburn University, located in Alabama, conducts research related to the pulp and paper industry. The group most interested in this field is associated with the Department of Chemical Engineering.

Australian Pulp and Paper Institute offers degrees through the MS and PhD levels. They maintain a high quality laboratory for pulping, fiber analysis, image analysis, and other measurements.

Empire State Paper Research Institute (ESPRI) conducts research in the areas of paper and board properties, raw material conservation, and papermaking techniques. Research reports can be viewed on the website.

Georgia Institute of Technology ("Georgia Tech") has a Pulp and Paper Engineering program in their Department of Chemical Engineering.

Helsinki University of Technology has a leading graduate research program pulp and paper technology. They have many ties with the nearby research organization "KCL," The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute.

Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) is a research center at Georgia Institute of Technology having a large group of industry sponsors.

McGill University Pulp and Paper Research Center is the research arm of the school in Montreal. The four main areas of research are organic chemistry of wood, colloidal and interfacial aspects of paper and papermaking, pulping and bleaching, and engineering fundamentals of paper.

McMaster Center for Pulp and Paper Research is based on Hamilton, Ontario. The focus of research is in application of polymers to pulp and paper processes. Colloidal interactions are emphasized. Some current projects involve retention aids,and the use of additives to enhance paper properties.

Miami University of Ohio is located in Oxford, Ohio. Their site includes a good description of opportunities for students interested in obtaining a Masters degree in paper science and engineering.

Monash University in Australia has a site describing the Australian Pulp and Paper Institute (APPI)..

North Carolina State University. That's us! In addition to our pulp and paper program (click at left), you also may be intested in web pages maintained by our University, our College of Natural Resources, our Department of Forest Biomaterials (formerly Wood and Paper Science. The sites includes a general description, personnel, research, technical services, continuing education, and opportunities for students.

Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (KTH) is very well known for its distinguished record of work involving papermaking chemistry, wood and pulp chemistry, the rheology of fiber networks, orientation of fiber suspensions, wet-web permeability, and influences of pressure pulses during forming.

State University of New York (SUNY, Syracuse) has a paper science and engineering program with both undergraduate and full graduate degree programs.

South China University of Technology (SCUT) has a research center called the Pulp and Paper State Key Laboratory. The university is located in Guangzhou, PRC.

Technical University, Darmstadt (Germany) is the home of the Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry (MACNAR). In addition to describing their program and activities, they also have excellent background reading (in German) on such subjects at chemical additives and zeta potential.

University of British Columbia (UBC) carries out research in collaboration with the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN, see later, under "Organizations"). They are especially known for their work involving hydrodynamics of paper forming. Research programs at UBC include studies of how wet-end chemicals affect fiber flow and flocculation.

University of Maine has a Chemical Engineering program with a long history of involvement with papermaking, pilot plant work, industrial short courses, and research. Prof. Hemant Pendse has been involved with electrokinetic measurements, a subject of particular interest to wet-end chemistry.

University of Minnesota has a Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering in their college of natural resources.

University of New Brunswick offers a one-week course in papermaking, that includes the subject of wet-end chemistry.

University of Tokyo Pulp and Paper Science Laboratory has a well known research program. Those interested in this site should also visit the home page of Akira Isogai.

University of Washington's Paper Science and Engineering department has a site that lists their courses.

University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point is putting together a new page to describe their program in paper technology.

Western Michigan Univerisity has a program in paper engineering, chemical engineering, and printing. They also have extensive pilot plant facilities available for industrial research .


Links to Organizations with Connections to Wet-End Chemistry: Orgnaizations

American Chemical Society and its Divisions of Cellulose and Renewable Materials and Colloid and Surface Chemistry sponsor conferences and produce publications of interest to papermaking chemists.

American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) is an industry group promoting improved public relations and publication of facts related to the industry's environmental efforts, including recycling.

Carolina Starches is a supplier of potato, tapioco, and corn starch products to the paper and allied industries.

Center for Paper Business and Industry Studies (CPBIS) publishes a newsletter describing the current and recent activities of this joint project between IPST, Georgia Tech (see links in the previous section, above), and the paper industry.

Centre-Technique de Papier (CTP) is the French research organization for paper industry research.

CP Engineering Gmbh is a global supplier of pre owned machinery and equipment for the pulp, paper and paper converting industries.

Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute (KCL) is a fully equipped and staffed national laboratory devoted to pulp and paepr technology. They are especially known for their work with mechanical pulps, chemical pulps, and analysis of materials.

Innventia, formerly The Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute (Pakforsk, STFI) is well known throughout the world for their work in papermaking chemistry and for their excellent pilot papermaking facilities.

Institute for Surface Chemistry, or Ytkemiskaintituttet (ISC or YKI) applies the principles of surface and colloid chemistry to papermaking.

Paper Research Materials distributes the Britt Jar and its components that are used as a laboratory system to compare effects of different retention aid systems and treatment levels.

Papiertechnische Stiftung (PTS, also known as "Paper Technology Specialists") provides research services to support paper manufacturing, training, consulting, and information services.

Pira International, based in the UK, is a member-based research and technology organization. They have been active in conducting seminars, research consortia, and projects in the areas of on-line sensing, paper machine process optimization, image analysis, recycling, and wet-end chemistry. Features in this website of particular interest to wet-end chemists include a section on paper and board process chemistry.

Pulp and Paper .Net provides online information about the industry. It maintains databases for industry events, jobs, chatrooms, tradeshows, products, and services.

Pulp and Paper Online provides a forum to learn of paper industry market oportunities, sources of equipment, and a range of other information of interest to industry professionals.

Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN) is located in Pointe Claire, just west of Montreal. They are well known for many years of fundamental work in the areas of pitch control, retention mechanisms and optimization, enhancement of paper properties, and environmentally responsible manufacture.

RISI is an e-commerce site for the paper trading business. For information related to wet-end chemistry, you can use their search function provided on the home page.

Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) is the major US-based organization involved with technical meetings, publications, and member services for the industry.

USDA Forest Products Research Lab in Madison, WI is very well known as a source of information about wood fibers and their uses in paper and related products.


Links to Companies Involved in Wet-End Chemical Products and Services Companies

The following is a partial list of the many companies that provide materials or services related to papermaking additives. Please accept my appologies if you notice something that is missing or wrong. Better yet, please send the updates (or missing) information so that it can be inserted. Scroll down to the bottom of this list for a separate listing of some companies that sell components for paper machines.

AFG Gmbh distributes the Fiber Potential Analyser (FPA), which is a portable fiber-pad streaming potential analyzer. They also distribute the Charge Analysing System (CAS), which is a portable streaming current endpoint detector wuitable for charge titrations of white water and filtrates from paper mills.

Air Products and Chemicals is based in Allentown, PA. They are a supplier of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl amines, and related products for surface and wet-end applications.

AKZO Nobel is the parent company of Eka Chemicals (see below), and they are also separately involved in supplying process chemicals to the paper industry. The following links describe product lines that may be of interest to paper chemists: www.surface.akzonobel.com, www.expancel.com, www.cellulosegum.com, www.cmc-salts.com, www.ethyleneamines.com, and www.functionalchemicals.com.

Almatis Inc. supplies aluminum trihydroxide that is used as a pigment for the paper industry.

Apex Engineering Products Co. supplies Rydlyme, a biodegradable anti-scale treatment.

Applied Paper Technology, based in Atlanta, provides technical consulting and laboratory serivces, including paper testing. They are able to carry out a wide range of physical tests of paper properties under standard conditions and interpret the results.

Aquaflex is an Italian company that provides a wide range of papermaking chemicals and services.

Aries Chemical specializes in industrial water and wastewater treatment chemicals, equipment, and services.

Ashland Chemical Co. is based in Dublin, Ohio. They produce solvents and polymers with widespread applications, including in pressure-sensitive adhesive formulations. Their specialty chemical division has a separate website listing.

Astron Ltd. has production facilities in China for worldwide distribution of ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC), an insolubilizer that is used in paper coating formulations, and also in pitch control applications.

Aurora Specialty Chemistries is a single source manufacturer of paper chemistry: AKD and ASA sizing, calendar stack waxes, emulsion polymers, water dispersion polymers, OBA, EPA registered Microbiocides, defoamers, yankee release and coating, stickies, de-inking, and similar products.

Avebe is a major producer of starch products, most notably (in our context) cationic potato starches for the paper industry.

BASF, based in Germany, is a major supplier of polyethyleneimine (PEI), retention aids, and other products for the wet end. They also supply latex products for surface and wet-end application to paper: http://www.basf.de/en/dispersionen/products/paperchemicals/

Bayer, created Lanxess, a corporate entity based in Germany that supplies wet-end chemicals. The U.S. focus is especially in the area of dyes and fluorescent whiteners.

BIM Kemi AB is a Swedish distributor of specialty chemicals, emphasizing colloidal interactions.

brittjar.com is the home of Paper Research Materials, the supplier of a well-known laboratory test for evaluation of retention aids.

BTG, based in Sweden, is a supplier of on-line consistency meters, retention meters, and drainage meters. Click on the link to "wet end chemistry," especially if you are interested in Mutek products.

Buckman Laboratories is based in Memphis, TN. This full-service supplier of chemicals for papermaking is best known for its biocides, deposit control chemicals, polyelectrolytes, dispersants, and defoamers. The site displays pictures of the most common microorganisms likely to occur in paper mills.

Canda International Ltd. is a UK-based group that gives training and consulting assistance related to papermaking chemicals, including fluorescent whitening agents, dyes, defoamers, deposit control additives, sizing agents, strength agents, and barrier coatings, etc.

Cerlic Environmental Controls supplies online turbidity (white water solids) sensing equipment.

Chattam Chemicals, Inc. is a producer of polyaluminum chloride, aluminum oxides, etc., especially for pharmaceutical uses.

Chem-Flow Incorporated is a manufacture of feed equipment for solution polymers and oil-free concentrates of paper machine additives. They also have ASA emulsifying and delivery equipment for polymer or starch emulsifying agents.

ChemSystems, Inc. is a supplier of chemical blending and feed equipment often used for papermaking additives. They are also represented in the US by Micrometrix (see below).

Chemtrac Systems supplies off-line and on-line streaming current detectors for monitoring and control of colloidal charge on paper machines.

Chemtronics, a division of Eka Chemicals (see below), supplies on-line instrumentation for measurement of retention, degree of flocculation, and ash content of fiber furnish. They also have been working on an on-line streaming potential detector.

ChemWorld is a consulting company dealing with waste water, process water, and black liquor equipment.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals is now part of BASF, and alsoincludes the assets of the former Allied Colloids. That means that in addition to dyes, they are a major supplier of retention aids and specialty chemicals for the paper industry, in addition to dyes and a wide range of other additives.

Clariant Corp., based in Switzerland and with a branch in Charlotte, NC, distributes dyes, whiteners, fixatives, and surface treatments to the paper industry.

CPM Industries is a supplier of high-purity titanium dioxide products for ceramics and papermaking.

Cytec Industries is a full-range supplier of chemicals for water treatment, mining, coatings, and additives for solids polymers.

Datacolor provides equipment for measurement of paper's color.

Dow Chemical Co. produces latex binders that are widely used in paper coating.

Dubois Sustainable Cleaning Solutions, a division of Unilever, specializes in deposit control additives and biocides for paper machines.

DuPont is a major supplier of titanium dioxide pigments to the paper industry.

Dynatech Quimica Ltda. is a Brazilian supplier of auxilliary chemicals for the paper industry, including defoamers, softeners, retention agents, and wet-strength additives. They also make organic pigments for ink formulation.

Eka Chemicals, based in Sweden, is a major world-wide supplier of papermaking additives. They are best known for their silica-based microparticle retention and drainage programs, sizing agents, and on-line monitoring equipment (see Chemtronics). They also have a page devoted specifically to micro-particle retention and drainage chemistry.

Emsland produces and sells potato starch products, including cationic wet-end starch. In the US they are represented by Kalamzoo Paper Chemicals and they have facilities in Maine.

Feed Machinery http://www.feedmachinery.com/ supplies a variety of equipment that has potential uses for feeding chemicals to paper machine systems.

Gencorp is best known as a supplier of latex binders and lubricants for paper coatings. They also sell a cationic debonder that is useful as an organic opacifying agent, reducing the need for titanium dioxide and sizing agents in some applications.

General Chemical Corp. produces aluminum-based chemicals and sulfuric acid used in the paper industry.

Georgia-Pacific Chemicals is a division of the paper company by the same name. Their specialties include wet-strength resins, rosin sizes, surface sizes, and products to enhance stiffness of paper products.

GL&V Pulp and Paper is a supplier of paper machine parts rebuilds, upgrades, repairs and optimization services for new and existing equipment.

Grain Processing Corp. is a supplier of starch products for the paper industry.

Greatland Chemicals is a Chinese distributer of alkylketene dimer (AKD) wax sizing and related products for papermaking.

Harima Chemicals is a supplier of rosin size, AKD, synthetic polymer sizes, dry-strength resins, de-inking chemicals (fatty acic derivatives, and flocculants useful in the treating of wastewater.

Hercules Inc., now Ashland, has a research center for paper chemicals in Willmington, DE. Their full range of papermaking additives is best known for its AKD alkaline sizing products, poly-amidoamine-epichlorohydrin wet-strength resins, rosin sizes, and retention aids. They are also very strong in the field of vegitable gums, specialty fibers, and speciatly resins.

Holland Co., Inc., located in Adams, Massachusetts, supplies chemicals for water treatment and papermaking, including alum, PAC, and sodium aluminate.

Huntsman Corp., based in Texas, supplies the paper industry with nonionic surfactants and titanium dioxide opacifying pigment.

Imerys is a leading supplier of calcium carbonate and clay minerals with a very strong presence in Europe and the US.

Immersitech, located near Cincinnati, provides developmental engineering services, naterials optimization, and root cause analysis related to packaging.

Integrated Paper Services, Inc. provides analytical services, paper testing, fiber identification, some wet-end chemistry, and consulting out of Appleton, Wisconsin.

International Microbial Associates, Inc. is an independent consulting buisness headed by Linda Robertson and specializing in biocide treatment program optimization, analyis, and troubleshooting.

Kalamazoo Paper Chemicals is a supplier of Emlsand cationic potato starchs, titanium dioxide pigment, clay filler, and paper process test equipment such as the Dynamic Drainage Analyzer (DDA).

KaMin LLC provides kaolin clay products for paper coating and filling, as well as conducting research to optimize paper coatings.

Kemira Chemicals, Inc., formerly Vinings Industries, is the North American headquarters for Kemira Chemicals Oy, a leading global supplier to the pulp and paper industry with facilities throughout Europe, Asia and now North America. Their internationally known products for sizing, retention, bleaching, water quality management, coating, and deposit control have been complimented with several new specialty chemical technologies such as defoamers, deinking aids, felt conditioners and colloidal silica with the acquisition.

Kolb AG distributes products to aid the runnability of paper machines. These include defoamers, cleaning agents, biocides, and repulping aids.

Lasentec now part of Mettler Toledo, produces a "Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement" (FBRM) or "Non-Imaging Reflectance Scanning Microcope," (SLM) that can detect distributions in the sizes of fiber flocs in flowing suspensions. Results are expressed in terms of "chord lengths."

Laval Laboratories, Inc. of Canada is a supplier of instruments for measuring zeta potential (micro-electrophoresis) and streaming potential (packed column).

Lechintech Ion Charge Analysers is a South African producer of streaming current detectors that can be used to determine the state of colloidal charge in white water. The European distributor is Teknoservice.

Lorentzen and Wettre produces various paper-testing instruments. These include a contact angle apparatus useful in evaluation of sizing.

Luyue Chemical, based in Jinan, Shandong province, China, is a producer of cationic polymers including poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) homopolymers and co-polymers.

Luzenac is a major supplier of talc, a mineral widely used to reduce the severity of pitch and stickies problems during paperm manufacture.

Magnesium Electron, Inc. (MEI) produces zirconium compounds such as ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC) for cross-linking of carboxylated resins during drying of paper.

Malvern Instruments supplies zeta potential measuring instruments and particle-size measurement technologies.

Mead-Westvaco, a paper company, is also a supplier of rosin, which is widely used for increasing the water resistance of paper that is made under acidic conditions with alum. Westvaco also makes Indulin lignin derivatives that are widely used as model compounds to evaluate the expected effects of carry-over from pulp mills into paper machine system.

Metso Automation (formerly Neles Automation and Kajaani) produces on-line instruments for monitoring and control of fines retention (optical method), consistency (optical), fiber length (optical), and colloidal charge (streaming current titration method). They also have lab instruments for formation uniformity and fiber length.

Micrometrix is a US representative of Rank Brothers, a maker and supplier of microelectrophoresis, streaming current, and flocculation analysis lab equipment. They also represent ChemSystems, Inc., a supplier of blending and feed equipment for chemical additives.

Mutek, Inc., has been acquired by BTG. The combined company supplies the most widely used streaming current devices for control of colloidal charge on paper machines. They also have an automated test device for retention and drainage, as well as various online control equipment.

Nalco Chemical Co. is based in Naperville, IL. They offer a full line of papermaking additives. They are well known as a supplier of retention aids, sizing agents, defoamers, and other additives to improve process efficiency and product quality. Nalco maintains a state-of-art analytical laboratory.

National Starch is a major supplier of wet-end starches are related technology for meeting paper strength, retention, and drainage objectives.

Norchem is a supplier of polymer processing and control equipment, including make-down units for emulsion-type and powder-type retention aid polymers.

Paradigm Chemical and Consulting, LLC is a Georgia-based firm specializing in paper mahcine wet-end chemistry, scale control, cleaning programs, chemical use, and optimization.

Paper Chemistry Lab, Inc. has an interesting site maintained by John Penniman, a vendor of on-line streaming potential devices and portable equipment for evaluating retention aid performance. The site contains a mix of discussions related to current issues.

Paper Research Materials supplies the Britt Jar (Dynamic Drainage/Retention Jar), which is among the most widely used devices for comparing the effectiveness of different retention aid types or dosages.

Papertex is a consulting organization, based in the UK. They offer training and consulting in papermaking chemistry and related technologies.

Penford Products Co. is a major supplier of size press starch products and wet-end starch products.

Plasmine, Inc. is a supplier of rosin sizes based in Pensicola and Panama City Florida. They are a division of Harima Chemicals Inc.

ProFlow Inc. is a manufacturer of wet-end chemical makedown, cooking, and feed equipment. This equipment includes liquid and dry polymer makedown and feed, dye makedown and feed, starch cooking and delivery, ASA emulsifiers, felt conditioning and pumps for various applications.

Q-JET DSI Inc. is a manufacturer of Direct Steam Injection Heaters and Mixing Jet Cookers for the Pulp and Paper Industry. Q-Jet Mixing Jet Cookers are used for cooking starches for wet end, size press, and coating applications. Q-Jet Heaters are used for heating process fluids such as water, paper stock, green liquor, etc.

Rank Brothers is a British supplier of microelectrophoresis equipment (to measure zeta potential), Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (to measure coagulation of mineral suspensions or fiber flocculation in the lab), and various titrators, stirrers, and oxygen electrodes. In the US they are represented by Mono Research and Micrometrix.

Reichhold Chemical supplies a variety of resins to the paper industry for wet and dry strength, binders, and barrier coatings.

Rohm and Haas, now a subsidiary of Dow, supplies latex binders and hollow plastic pigments that are used in coatings and in some wet-end applications.

Specialty Minerals, Inc. (SMI) is a leading supplier of precipitated calcium carbonate fillers, mostly be means of satellite production facilities located near to large paper mills.

Stockhausen, Inc. produces Praestol polymers for retention and drainage.

Tajpapers located in Indica manufactures a wide variety of hand-made papers.

Tate and Lyle supplies a full range of both size press and wet-end starches.

The Way Inc. distributes cleaning agents and felt-cleaning systems for paper machines.

Thiele Kaolin Co. is a privately owned producer of clay products for filling and coating. They have listed their product specifications on the web.

Vulcan Performance Chemicals (formerly Callaway) produces strength resins and charge modifiers.

Western Polymer Corp. produces and distributes the WESCAT(R), WESBOND(TM), and WESPOLY(TM) brands of cationic starches for paper applications. Size press starches are also available.

Wetend Technologies Ltd of Finland is the distributor of "Trumpjet" jet injection mixing systems for papermaking process chemicals. They also provide consultation survices for recycling processes, paper machine approach systems, and wet-end operations.

Zeta Management, Inc. is a long-time supplier of streaming current detectors to the water and wastewater treating industries. They are based in Texas.

20 Microns, Ltd. is the largest Indian producer of mineral products, including clay, talc, and calcium carbonate. Their main sales technology includes Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Links to Companies with PAPER MACHINERY Products and Services Companies

Sawyer Plastics sells seal strips to be used with couch rolls and other applications.


Paperonweb provides a broad range of useful links and information related to the field of papermaking. This is a good place to find links to paper manufacturers, paper chemicals, machinery, control systems, and employment resources. You also can find definitions of abbreviations and acrynyms used in the paper industry.

Recycling4Live has practical recommendation for recycling of various materials, including paper.

Paper physics information from Charles Green, with an emphasis on paper curl, dimensional stability, and shrinkage of xerographic papers.

Information on this site is provided as a public service by Dr. Marty Hubbe of the Department of Wood and Paper Science at North Carolina State University. While the information is intended to be accurate, users of the information must accept full risk. When errors in the contents of this site are found, please send a message to the website caretaker by using the e-mail link provided below (final item):

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